Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Pencak silat or silat ("fighting by using techniques of self-defence") is an Asian martial art with roots in the culture of the Malay people. This art is widely known in Indonesia and Malaysia but can also be found in varying degrees within countries such as Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, and the Philippines amongst others. It is estimated that there are hundreds of alirans (styles) and thousands of schools. Many of the alirans find their origin in the observation of wild animals fighting. "Harimau" (tiger) and "Monyet" (monkey) are some examples.
There are four main aspects to pencak silat:
- The "Mental-Spiritual" (mental and spiritual) aspect:
- Pencak silat builds and develops the personality and noble character of oneself
- The "Bela-Diri" (self-defence) aspect:
- Self-confidence and perseverance are very important.
- The "Seni Budaya" (culture, art) aspect:
- Culture and performing the "art" of pencak silat is very important. This combines Pencak Silat with traditional music and costumes.
- The "Olah Raga" (sport) aspect:
- This means that the physical aspect of pencak silat is important. We try to have a sound mind in a sound body. Competitions are part of this aspect.
- There are full-contact (Tanding) fights, as well as form demonstrations, for one (Tunggal), two (Ganda) or team (Regu) persons.
The styles and schools of pencak silat differ from each other with regard to which aspects are emphasised. It is thanks to the sport and self-defence aspects that this sport has become popular in Europe. However, many believe the essence of Pencak Silat is lost, or watered down, when converted to a sport and therefore still focus on traditional or spiritual forms of Silat, not strictly following the PERSILAT way.
Pencak Silat is a system that consists of Sikap (positions) and Gerak-gerak (movements). When pesilat (silat practitioners) are moving (when fighting) these sikap and gerak-gerak change continuously. As soon as one finds an opening in their opponent's defence, they will try to finish the opponent with a fast Serangan (attack).
Pencak Silat has a wide variety of defence and attacking techniques. Practitioners may use hands, elbows, arms, legs, knees and feet in attacks. Common techniques include kicking, hitting, tripping, sweeps, locks, takedowns, throws, strangles, and joint breaking.
The pesilat, or silat practitioner, practices with Juru-juru. A Juru is a series of meta-movements for the upper body used as a guide to learn the applications, or buah when done with a partner. The use of Langkah, or lower body meta movements teach the use of footwork. When combined, it is Dasar Pasan, or whole body flow.
Pencak Silat has developed rapidly during the 20th century and has become a competition sport under the PERSILAT rules and regulations. At the moment Pencak Silat is being promoted by PERSILAT in several countries on all five continents. The goal of PERSILAT is to make Pencak Silat an olympic sport. Apart from the official PERSILAT line of making Pencak Silat a competition sport, there are still many traditional styles practising old forms of Silek and Silat.
PERSILAT (Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antarabangsa, the International Pencak Silat Federation) is promoting Pencak Silat as an international competition sport. Only members recognised by PERSILAT are allowed to participate at international competitions.
At the moment some European national Pencak Silat federations together with PERSILAT have founded a European Pencak Silat Federation.
In 1986 the first Pencak Silat World Championship outside of Asia took place in Vienna, Austria.
In 2002 Pencak Silat was introduced as part of the exhibition programme at the Asian Games in Busan Korea for the first time.
Bersilat is the word given to the act of doing silat.
List of Silat styles
- Persatuan pencak silat inti ombak//Inner wave Pencak Silat - Indonesian Pencak Silat base on mataram and madura style teach internal and external aspect of human body by Guru Daniel Prasetya
- Silek Tuo and Silek Harimau - traditional old styles from the Minangkabau tribe in Western Sumatra meaning "Old Silek" and "Tiger Silek"
- Pencak Silat Pertempuran - A silat style composed of Pencak Silat Pamur and Sterlak Silat primarily. Other Indo-Malay silat influences include: Seni Bela Diri Silat Jati Wisesa , and Raja Monyet Silat . It translates to Combat Silat.
- Perguruan Pencak Silat Padjadjaran Nasional - Traditional west-javanese styles are combined in this aliran, the European branche is represented by Eric Bovelander .
- Pencak Silat Gerakan Suci - An evolution of Pencak Silat Mande Muda
- Silat Mubai - Muslim Silat
- Silat Zulfikari - Martial practice of the Qadiri Rifai Tariqa
- Pukulan Bongkot - a Silat style
- Bersilat - Silat from Borneo
- Maphilindo Silat - a Silat style founded by Dan Inosanto to honour his Silat teachers. It is composed of styles from Malaysia (Ma), the Philippines (Phil) and Indonesia (Indo).
- Tongkat Silat- Founded by Maha Guru "Pak Vic" de Thouars in 1957, with the influences of Silat Soempat and Serak.
- ODF Silat - Founded by Maha Guru "Pak Vic" de Thouars, designed for Law Enforcement, especially direct attacks from the open blade.
- Pukulan Pentjak Silat Serak (or Sera), a system founded by Pak Sera of the Badui tribe and expanded by Mas Roen and Mas Djoet - Victor de Thouars, teaching the traditional Pukulan Sera(R)in the greater Los Angeles area.
- Soempat Silat - Pak Tisari Majoeki, founder, developer of the curved rattan stick, Lineage holder Maha Guru "Pak Vic" de Thouars.
- Bukti Negara , a modern, modified style of Sera designed by Serak lineage holder Pendekar Paul de Thouars. The name Bukti Negara means "gift to a nation," reflecting Pendekar de Thouars' gratitude to the United States for all it has given him. Because there are myriad restrictions on who can study the parent system of Serak, Pendekar de Thouars modified Serak to create Bukti Negara in order to expose an ever increasing audience to the art.
- Kuntao Silat combines Kuntao and Silat, as taught by Willem de Thouars.
- Perisai Diri Silat - Indonesian Technique created by Pak Dirdjo . Practical and Effective technique base on elusive avoidance and maximum power counter attack.
- Cimande - along with Sera (monkey style) Pamacan (tiger style) and Trumbu (stick fighting) are styles of Pencak Silat founded by Embah Kahir in the late 1700's in West Java. These arts still exist in some villages located on the Cimande river, including the village of Tarik Kolot. Today there are over 300 variations of Cimande.
- Pukulan Cimande Pusaka - A style of Cimande descended from Mas Jut, taught by Pendekar William Sanders . This style includes the original Embah Kahir arts from Tarik Kolot village.
- Seni Gayung Fatani - a Malaysian style originating from the Fatani Province in Southern Thailand. One of the four reputedly largest silat school of Malaysia.
- Gayung Malaysia - One of the four reputedly largest silat school of Malaysia.
- Silat Cekak - A different kind of silat. It is more to defensive-type of silat because it applies 99% defending technique and only 1% attacking technique. This silat do not have any Bunga , Langkah Gerak or Kuda-kuda. The movements or counter-attacks of this silat is quite unpredictable because it doesn't apply Kuda-kuda in its movements. One of the four reputedly largest silat school of Malaysia.
- Silat Lincah - One of the four reputedly largest silat school of Malaysia.
- Inner Wave Pencak Silat
- Pencak Silat Pamor Badai Netherlands
- Pencak Silat Pamor Badai Belgium
- Pencak Silat Padjadjaran Homepage
- The European Silat Federation
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