Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
One of Asia's most influential and successful airlines, it has a major presence in most parts of Asia and Oceania, as well as having major operations in Europe and North America. Flights to secondary cities and less profitable routes to Southeast Asia, as well as cities in China and India are handled by a regional subsidiary, Silkair, while cargo operations are handled by Singapore Airlines Cargo. The combined entity is the world's second largest carrier by market capitalisation, only trailing behind Southwest Airlines of USA and ranked amongst the global top 15 in terms of Revenue Passenger Kilometres according to Air Transport World.
Subsidiaries and Alliances
The Singapore Airlines Group consists of over 50 subsidiaries and associates, including:
- Abacus Travel Systems (61.0%)
- Cargo Community Network (51.0%)
- SIA Engineering Company (86.6%)
- SIAEC Global (86.6%)
- SIAEC Services (86.6%)
- Singapore Jamco (56.3%)
- SIA Properties (100%)
- Silkair (100%)
- Singapore Airlines (Mauritius) (100%)
- SIA (Mauritius) (100%)
- Singapore Airlines Cargo (100%)
- Singapore Airport Duty-Free Emporium (96.8%, inactive)
- Singapore Airport Terminal Services (86.5%)
- Aero Laundry and Linen Services (86.5%)
- Aerolog Express (60.5%)
- Asia-Pacific Star (86.5%, dormant)
- Country Foods (57.7%)
- SATS Airport Services (86.5%)
- SATS Catering (86.5%)
- SATS Security Services (86.5%)
- Singapore Aviation and General Insurance Company (100%)
- Singapore Flying College (100%)
- Sing-Bi Funds (100%, inactive)
- Tradewinds Tours & Travel (100%)
- Asia Airfreight Terminal (21.2%)
- Asia Leasing (21.0%)
- Asian Compressor Technology Services (21.2%)
- Asian Surface Technologies (25.1%)
- Aviserv (42.4%)
- Beijing Airport Inflight Kitchen (34.6%)
- Beijing Aviation Ground Services Company (34.6%)
- Combustor Airmotive Services (42.4%)
- Eagle Services Asia (42.4%)
- Evergreen Air Cargo Services Corporation (21.6%)
- Evergreen Airline Services Corporation (17.3%)
- Fuel Accessory Service Technologies (42.4%)
- International Aerospace Tubes Asia (28.9%)
- MacroAsia-Eurest Catering Services (17.3%)
- Maldives Inflight Catering (30.3%)
- Messier Services Asia (34.6%)
- Pan Asia Pacific Aviation Services (40.8%)
- PT JAS Aero-Engineering Services (42.4%)
- PT Pantai Indah Tateli (20.0%)
- PT Purosani Sri Persada (20.0%)
- PWA International (42.4%)
- RCMS Properties (20.0%)
- Rohr Aero Services-Asia (34.6%)
- SERVAIR-SATS Holding Company (42.4%)
- Service Quality (SQ) Centre (50.0%)
- Taj Madras Flight Kitchen (25.9%)
- TAJ SATS Air Catering (42.4%)
- Tan Son Nhat Cargo Services (25.9%)
- Tiger Airways (49.0%)
- Turbine Coating Services (21.2%)
- Virgin Atlantic Airways (49.0%)
- International Engine Component Overhaul (IECO) (43.3%)
- Singapore Aero Engine Services Private Limited (SAESL) (43.3%)
- Singapore Aircraft Leasing Enterprise (SALE) (35.5%)
Singapore Airlines owns a 49% stake in Virgin Atlantic Airways, the transaction being completed on 30 March 2000. The airline also owns a 49% stake in Tiger Airways, a low-cost carrier flying from Singapore.
It previously owned 25% of Air New Zealand (diluted to 4.5% after the government of New Zealand bought into the airline to rescue it from bankruptcy) and is a prominent member of the worldwide Star Alliance, which it joined in April 2000.
The airline has code-share agreements with the following airlines:
- Air Canada
- Air India
- Air New Zealand
- All Nippon Airways
- Austrian Airlines
- American Airlines
- BMI British Midland
- Japan Airlines (on Singapore Airlines Cargo)
- Lufthansa Airlines
- Malaysia Airlines
- Royal Brunei Airlines
- Scandinavian Airlines System (on Singapore Airlines Cargo)
- Vietnam Airlines
- Virgin Atlantic Airways
Singapore Airlines began as "Malayan Airways Limited" in 1946, mounting its first flight on the 1st of May, 1947. It started off flying an Airspeed Consul twin engined airplane between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, and Penang (two cities and an island in West Malaysia).
The remainder of the 1940s was a growth period for Malayan Airlines, as was the 1950s. World War II had just finished and people around the world wanted to travel, a privilege that they had sometimes been denied because of the situation worldwide during previous years, and residents of Singapore and Malaysia were no exception. By 1955, Malayan Airlines' fleet had grown to include a large number of Douglas DC-3s.
In 1963, the creation of the Federation of Malaysia brought a change of name, to "Malaysian Airways". In 1966, the name was changed again, this time to "Malaysia-Singapore Airlines" (MSA), following Singapore's departure from the Federation of Malaysia the previous year.
MSA ceased operations in 1972, when political disagreements between Singapore and Malaysia resulted in the formation of two new airlines: Singapore Airlines and Malaysia Airlines. Singapore's airline company had 10 aircraft at that time. However, Singapore Airlines' hostesses continued to wear the sarong kebaya dress, which had previously been used by MSA. While airlines in Western countries shied away from recruiting young women, Singapore Airlines promoted the image of the 'Singapore Girl' in its advertising.
Singapore Airlines saw rapid growth. during the 1970s, adding many cities in the Indian subcontinent and Asia to the 22 city network it already served, and acquiring Boeing 747 airplanes. During the 1980s, the United States, Canada, and many European cities joined Singapore Airlines' route map. During this time, Madrid became the first and only Hispanic city to be served by Singapore Airlines. In the 1990s, Singapore Airlines began flights to Johannesburg in South Africa, the first African destination for the airline, with the cities of Cape Town and Durban being added.
During the 1990s, Singapore Airlines licensed model aeroplane companies like Schabak, Wooster plastic aeroplanes, Herpa Wings and many others, to manufacture promotional plane models for them. Their Boeing 747's became known as the Megatops, and they ordered Boeing 777 and Airbus equipment to complement the Megatops.
In 2004, Singapore Airlines began direct flights from Singapore to Los Angeles International Airport in California and Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey. This marked the first ever non-stop air service between Singapore and the United States of America, using their A340-500 aircraft. Currently, with a total flight time of 18 hours, the flight between Singapore and Newark is also the longest passenger air service offered by any airline in the world.
Incidents and Accidents
On 26 March, 1991, Singapore Airlines Flight 117, piloted by Captain Stanley Lim on a flight from Kuala Lumpur to Singapore, was hijacked in mid-flight by four Pakistanis, led by Zahid Hussain Soomro, demanding that the plane be flown to Sydney. The crisis ended at Singapore Changi Airport, where all four were killed by SAF Commandos, with none of the 123 passengers and crew suffering injury or death.
On 31 October, 2000, Singapore Airlines Flight 6, flying on a Singapore Changi Airport, Singapore-Chiang Kai Shek International Airport,Taipei, Taiwan-Los Angeles International Airport,Los Angeles, California route, crashed during takeoff from Taipei for its second leg, killing 79 passengers and 3 crew members.
Main article: Singapore Airlines fleet
It is the launch customer for the Airbus A380-800, and will be the first airline in the world to operate it when it comes into service in the second quarter of 2006. It has 10 of these aircraft on order and options on a further 15 aircraft. It plans to introduce it on its Kangaroo route services from Sydney to London via its base at Changi Airport (ref: Airliner World, March 2005).
|Aircraft||Engine||In Operation||On Order||On Option||Type||Seat Configuration|
|Airbus A340-541||Rolls-Royce Trent 553||5||-||0||Ultra long haul||J64/Y117(181)|
|Airbus A380-841||Rolls-Royce Trent 900||0||10||15||Long haul|
|Boeing 747-412||Pratt & Whitney PW4056||27||-||0||Long haul||P12/J50/Y310(372), P12/J50/Y313(375)|
|Boeing 777-212ER||Rolls-Royce Trent 884||17||-||0||Medium haul||J30/Y293(323)|
|Boeing 777-212ER||Rolls-Royce Trent 884||14||-||0||Medium haul||P12/J42/Y234(288)|
|Boeing 777-212ER||Rolls-Royce Trent 892||15||-||0||Long haul||J30/Y255(285)|
|Boeing 777-312||Rolls-Royce Trent 892||9||3||0||Medium haul||P18/J49/Y265(332)|
|Boeing 777-312ER||General Electric GE90-115B||0||19||13||Long haul|
- Contrary to popular belief, all of Singapore Airlines' 777-212s are the Extended Range (ER) models; featuring center fuel tanks for maximum storage. The airline however chooses to only refer to the 9V-SV* registered series of aircraft as 777-200ERs as those planes are certified to 656,000lb Maximum Takeoff Weights (MTOWs) and fly the longer intercontinental routes. The 9V-SR* and 9V-SQ* registered aircraft feature derated engines which can be electronically reprogrammed to produce more thrust and thus operate longer flights at higher MTOWs if ever needed.
- 6 of the Boeing 747-400s were withdrawn from regular operation since the SARS crisis in the year 2003. Another 2 will be withdrawn later, and all 8 will be sold to two airlines from the year 2006 to 2008, after being converted into freighters. There is a possibility they may be transferred to Singapore Airlines Cargo, as an addition to its strong 14 B747-412F fleet dubbed MegaArk.
- The Boeing 777 planes on order/option can be for any model in the aircraft family type (except for the Boeing 777-300ER, which were part of a separate order signed in August 2004)
- The airline has a history of dubbing its fleet according to plane makes. The existing 29 Boeing 747-400s are dubbed "Megatop", while the 55 Boeing 777s are called "Jubilee". The 5 Airbus A340-500s were named "Leadership," but that has since been dropped.
- A listing of previously used names includes "Superbus" for the 8 Airbus A300, "3TEN" for the 23 Airbus A310-300, "Celestar" for the 17 Airbus A340-300,"Super B" for the 23 Boeing 747-200B, "Big Top" for the 14 Boeing 747-300.
- British Airways flew, for a short period of time, a Concorde (registered G-BOAD) that had Singapore Airlines' livery on one side, and British Airways' logo on the other. The aircraft was operated by BA pilots, and staffed with flight attendants from both airlines.
Main article: Singapore Airlines flight numbers
In general, the flight numbers are allocated according to geographical regions as follows:
- SQ001-SQ049: North America-bound destinations
- SQ050-SQ199: Southeast Asia-bound destinations
- SQ200-SQ299: Oceania-bound destinations
- SQ300-SQ399: Europe-bound destinations
- SQ400-SQ499: South Asia, Southwest Asia and Africa-bound destinations
- SQ500-SQ599: Unutilised
- SQ600-SQ699: Supplementary flights
- SQ700-SQ799: Unutilised
- SQ800-SQ949: Greater China and Korea-bound destinations
- SQ950-SQ999: Japan-bound destinations
- SQ1000-SQ1099: North America codeshares via Air Canada
- SQ2000-SQ2299: Europe codeshares via Lufthansa Airlines
- SQ2500-SQ2699: Europe codeshares via Virgin Atlantic
- SQ2700-SQ2899: Europe codeshares via Austrian Airlines
- SQ2900-SQ2999: Europe codeshares via BMI British Midland
- SQ3000-SQ3999: Singapore Airlines Cargo flights
- SQ5000-SQ5099: Southeast Asia codeshares via Silkair
- SQ5100-SQ5499: Southeast Asia codeshares via Royal Brunei Airlines
- SQ5500-SQ5899: Southeast Asia codeshares via Malaysia Airlines
- SQ5900-SQ5999: East Asia codeshares via All Nippon Airways
- SQ6000-SQ6199: Oceania codeshares via Ansett Australia, now defunct
- SQ6200-SQ6999: Oceania codeshares via Air New Zealand
- SQ7000-SQ7999: Singapore Airlines Cargo flights
Consistently rated in the top airlines in the world. However, customer service by the Singapore Girls (air stewardess) may be inconsistent - it has been reported that excellent service is rendered to Western-speaking passengers but poor service to local passengers.
Main article: Singapore Airlines destinations
Events in 2005
Beijing was upped to thrice daily.
- Singapore Airlines
- Singapore Airlines Fleet Detail
- Singapore Airlines Passenger Opinions
- Comprehensive review of Singapore Airlines
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