Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Singapore Changi Airport
|Singapore Changi Airport|
|Type of airport||commercial|
|Opened||1 July 1981|
|Distance from town||20 km (12 miles)|
|Total area||13 km²|
|Length (m)||Width (m)|
|Passenger Terminal Buildings|
|Floor area||634,100 m²|
|Handling capacity||44 million|
|Parking bays||68 (aerobridge)|
|Opened||1 July 1981 (operational)|
29 December 1981 (official)
|Floor area||276,100 m²|
|Handling capacity||21 million|
|Parking bays||32 (aerobridge)|
|Opened||22 November 1990 (operational)|
1 June 1991 (official)
|Floor area||358,000 m²|
|Handling capacity||23 million|
|Parking bays||34 (aerobridge)|
|Handling capacity||20 million|
|Parking bays||28 (aerobridge)|
|Low Cost Terminal|
|Handling capacity||2.7 million|
|Airfreight movements (tonnes)|
|Comments on this test infobox|
Singapore Changi Airport (新加坡樟宜机场 / Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura / சிங்கப்பூர் சாங்கி விமானநிலையம்) in the city and State of Singapore is one of the largest aviation facilities in Asia. Changi Airport is located in Changi, about 20 kilometres from the city centre on the eastern edge of Singapore island, and uses the IATA code SIN and the ICAO code WSSS. It is operated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS).
Singapore Changi Airport is the home base of Singapore Airlines, and many large jets and other types of planes owned by several international airlines operate there round the clock.
In 2004, Changi Airport saw a record of 30.4 million passengers, a 23.1 % year-on-year growth in passenger traffic. Similarly, a record of 1.78 million tonnes of cargo was moved, representing a year-on-year airfreight volume increase of 10.2 per cent. In addition, nine new airlines started operations at Changi Airport. In all, Changi is served by over 75 airlines that operate more than 3700 weekly flights to about 170 cities in the world.
The replacement vs. expansion debate
Rapid growth in aviation transportation in the world was also felt in Singapore, where the Singapore International Airport at Paya Lebar, Singapore's third civilian airport after Kallang Airport and Seletar Airport was facing problems of congestion. Opened in 1955, the airport had a single runway and small passenger terminal building, and its inability to cope with rising traffic become critical by the 1970s when passenger numbers rose from 300,000 to 1.7 million passengers annually by 1970, before leaping to 4 million annually in 1975.
The government had two options available, namely to either expand the existing airport, or to build a completely new airport in another location. Concerns that the existing airport was located in an area with potential for urban growth, and was physically helmed in on all sides, the government decided in 1975 to build a new airport in the eastern tip of the main island at Changi, where the potential for growth can be realised through land reclamation. In addition, incoming and outgoing airplanes can fly over the sea, avoiding issues of noise pollution as it has been at the Paya Lebar site.
Preparing the land
Therefore, even as the airport in Paya Lebar was still in the midst of expansion works, land reclamation works began in Changi which involved the use of over 52 million cubic metres of landfill and seafill. About 2 square kilometres of swamp land were cleared and filled with 12 million cubic metres of earth from nearby hills, while another 40 million cubic metres of sand were used to fill up the seabed, creating half of the airports' total land area.
Construction on phase I commenced which included work on the first passenger terminal building, the first runway, 45 aircraft parking bays, and supporting facilities and structures including a huge maintenance hangar, the first fire station, workshops and administrative offices, an airfreight complex, two cargo agents buildings, in-flight catering kitchens and a 80-metre high control tower.
Phase I opened for commercial operation on 1 July 1981, and was officiall opened with much fanfair on 29 December the same year. It closed its first year of operations spectacularly, with 8.1 million passengers and almost 200,000 tonnes of airfreight handled. 63,100 aircraft movements were recorded that year.
Works on Phase II commenced immediately after the completion of Phase I, including the completion of a second runway, 23 more aircraft parking bays, the second fire station, and the third cargo agent building.
Awards and allocades
Since its opening, the airport had been known for its excellent services and good security, winning worldwide accolades within a few years of its opening. Despite competition from much newer airports in the region, the airport continues to maintain its reputation for setting standards in airport service quality, and has continued to received this recognition year after year. In the year 2000, it received 16 best airport awards. 20 awards were received in 2001, a record of 23 in 2002 and another 20 in 2003. So far, 15 awards has been received for the year 2004.
Some notable awards and allocades the airport has received include:
- The only airport in the world to be currently classified as a 5 star airport, the highest category in Skytrax's "World Airport Star Ranking" exercise.  In the "The World Airport Survey" conducted by the same organisation, the airport came in a commendable second place for three consequtive years from 2002 to 2004, and was third in 2001, with the gap between itself and first placed Hong Kong International Airport narrowing with each successive year.
- The "Best Airport in Asia" award by "AETRA 2004", a new award by Airport World based on the "AETRA customer satisfaction survey" launched in 2004 and replacing the "IATA Global Airport Monitor", the result of a collaboration between the Airports Council International (ACI) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Prior to this, the airport has won both the "Best Airport - Worldwide" and the "Best Airport - Asia/Pacific" awards in the 25 - 40 million passengers category 4 times in a row from 2000 to 2003 when the award was based on the "IATA Global Airport Monitor".
- The "IATA Eagle Award - Airport" award from the International Air Transport Association (IATA) for 3 years from 2001 to 2003 in its "Annual IATA Eagle Awards".
- The "Best Airport in the World" from the UK/Europe edition of Business Traveller , winning the award for 17 consecutive times from 1988 to 2004. It was also awarded the "Best Airport in the World" from the Asia Pacific edition of the same magazine, winning the award for 13 consecutive times since 1992. The German edition conferred the same award for 11 consecutive years since 1993, while the United States edition gave the award 12 times since 1991 except for the year 2000. It won the award for the first time in the Middle East edition in 2004.
- The "World Travel Awards" , organised since 1994 and which some consider the "Oscars" of the travel industry, awarded the "World's Leading Airport" title to Changi in 1994 (nominated from 1995 to 2000), the "Asia/Pacific's Leading Airport" title in 2001 and 2002 (nominated in 1998 and 1999), the "World's Leading Airport Lounge" award in 2003 (nominated in 2000 to 2002 and in 2004), and the "Asia's Leading Airport" award in 2004 (nominated in 2003).
- The "Airport Authority in Asia/ Pacific with the most supportive approach in Travel Retail" award from the Duty Free News International and Travel Retailer International 's highly pretigious "Raven Fox Awards for Travel Retail Excellence in Asia Pacific", awarded for 7 consecutive times since 1998.
- The "Best Airport - Asia" in the "Asian Freight & Supply Chain Awards 2004" from the publication Cargonews Asia , having won it for 18 consecutive times from 1987 to 2004.
- "Deficiency-free" airport by the International Federation of Airline Pilots Association , the 24th consecutive year the airport has been receiving the award since its opening in 1981.
- The "World's Best Airport" by the United Kingdom edition of Condé Nast Traveller , in the "2004 Travel Awards", the 4th time for the airport has received it since 1999 to the present except for the year 2001.
- "Favorite Asian Airport" by the Asian edition of TIME magazine in the "TIME Readers' Travel Choice Awards", for 4 consecutive years since 2001.
- The "Best International Airport" in the "Telegraph Travel Awards" conducted by the Daily Telegraph (United Kingdom) and the Sunday Telegraph for 6 consecutive years since 1998.
- The "Best International Airport" by OAG Worldwide 's  "Airline of the Year Awards", for 8 consecutive years from 1996 to 2003. It was a nominee in 2004, with Dubai International Airport winning the award for the first time.
- The "TTG Travel Awards" by the Travel Trade Gazette , the airport was entered into a special category called the "Hall of Fame" since the year 2002 for being nominated in the "Best Airport" category for more than a decade. This special award, inaugurated in 2002, is conferred every year the award ceremony is conducted, and elevates the airport from the voting process. Singapore Airlines was similarly entered into the "Hall of Fame" for the "Best Airline" category in the same year.
- Air Canada (codeshare)
- Air New Zealand
- Austrian Airlines
- Malaysia Airlines
- Philippine Airlines
- Royal Brunei
- Singapore Airlines
- Singapore Airlines Cargo (cargo)
- Virgin Atlantic Airways (codeshare)
Low Cost Terminal (2006)
- Tiger Airways (Will move from Terminal 1 to the Low Cost Terminal in 2006)
New Airlines in 2005/2006
- Alitalia resumed operations to Changi through codeshare with KLM
- Jet Airways (15 April 2005)
- Air Sahara (11 April) (2005)
- Air India Express (2005) (Flying together with sister airline Air India to Changi)
- Royal Khmer Airlines 5 May2005 (4 weekly)
- Star Air (June 2005)
- Lao Airlines (2005)
- Shenzhen Airlines
- Phuket Air
- Adam Air
- Hainan Airlines
- Etihad Airlines
- Cebu Pacific Air (from 6 November 2002 to January 2003)
- Evergreen International Airlines (from 12 April 2000)
- Kuwait Airways
- Lauda Air (relaunched by Austrian Airlines)
- Merpati Nusantara Airlines (ceased flights, now codeshared)
- Swissair (ceased operations on 31 March 2002)
- Air Macau
- Jatayu Airlines (Indonesia)
- Riau Airlines (Indonesia)
- Ansett Australia
- Pakistan International Airlines
- First Cambodia Airlines (terminated from 25 February 2004 to present, as the airline has financial problems)
- Egypt Air
- AWAir planned to commence flights from 19 January 2005, but was forced to abandon plans to fly to Singapore at the last minute due to administrative issues.
Infrastructure, Facilities & Services
The Airport currently has 2 parallel runways names 02L/20R and 02R/20L. From 23 December 2004, 02R/20L was renamed as 02C/20C. A new parallel runway which was built 1.8 kilometres to the east of 02C/20C, currently used only for Republic of Singapore Air Force aircraft as part of Changi East Airbase , took the name 02R/20L concurrently, from 01/19 as it was named previously.
The new runway is expected to be extended and eventually be turned into a third runway for the airport in its future expansion plans.
- Singapore Airport Terminal Services (SATS)
- Changi International Airport Services (CIAS)
- Swissport (From 2 March 2005)Its ground-handling licence is for 10 years. It will offer passenger handling services (eg. check-in), apron handling services (eg. baggage loading /unloading) and cargo handling services to airlines at Changi Airport. Presently its only customer is Swiss International Airlines
Singapore Changi Airport has two terminals connected by a people mover system, with a third terminal currently under construction and due for completion in 2008 and another terminal for low cost carriers due for completion in 2006.
In addition to the expected array of duty free shops and food and drink shops, Changi airport has six garden areas in the open air. These are available to customers of the airport and each represents a different group of plants, Cactus, Bamboo, Heliconia (Gingers, Strelitzia etc.), Sunflower, Fern, and Orchid. These gardens provide welcome oases to escape from the ubiquitous air-conditioning and allow contact with a small part of the real world of Singapore, as well as providing an al fresco smoking area for some airport employees.
Inter Terminal Transportation Services
SkyTrain services are available at the SkyTrain stations located at the departure halls of both airport terminals. (The SkyTrain is currently being upgraded to the latest standards, incorporating the most advanced technological features in its new fleet of vehicles, and expanded to serve the upcoming Terminal 3, due to open in 2008. SkyTrain services will not be disrupted during this period.)
- Terminal 1 To Terminal 2 & Vice Versa
- 0600 To 0130 Daily
Land Transportation Services
Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Services
MRT services are readily available at the MRT station located underground between Terminal 2 & the future Terminal 3.
- CG2 Changi Airport To EW13 City Hall Via A Cross Platform Transfer At EW4 Tanah Merah
- S$1.40 On A Standard Ticket | S$1.39 On An Adult ezlink Card
- 26 Minutes Excluding Waiting & Transfer Times
Public Bus Services
Bus services are readily available at the bus terminals located at the basement levels of both airport terminals.
- Service 24 | Changi Airport To Ang Mo Kio Via Bedok, Geylang & Serangoon
- Service 27 | Changi Airport To Hougang Via Tampines & Sengkang
- Service 36 | Changi Airport To Tomlinson Road Via Marine Parade, Marina Centre & Orchard Road
- Service 53 | Changi Airport To Bishan Via Pasir Ris, Hougang & Serangoon
- Service 858 | Changi Airport To Woodlands Via Yishun & Sembawang
Taxi services are readily available at the taxi stands located at the arrival halls of both airport terminals. The taxi stands are air conditioned and are equipped with plasma televisions broadcasting Channel NewsAsia, a regional news channel.
- Changi Airport To Any Destination In Singapore
- Fare + Surcharges (If Applicable)
Limousine Taxi Services
Limousine taxi services are readily available at the limousine taxi counters located at the arrival halls of both airport terminals.
- Changi Airport To Any Destination In Singapore
- S$35.00 + Surcharges (If Applicable)
Car Rental Services
Car rental services are readily available at the car rental counters located at Terminal 2.
- Aviation landscape in Singapore
- Changi Airport Homepage
- Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore Homepage
- Introduction to Singapore Changi Airport
- Strategic Infrastructure Investment Decisions in Airport and Rail development: The Case of Singapore
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