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Sir Edward William Elgar, Bt OM GCVO (June 2, 1857 – February 23, 1934) was a British composer, born in the small village of Lower Broadheath outside Worcester, Worcestershire, to William Elgar, a piano tuner and music dealer, and his wife Ann.
Surrounded by sheet music and instruments in his father's shop in Worcester's High Street, the young Elgar became self-taught in music. On warm summers' days, he would take manuscripts into the countryside to study them. Thus there began for him a strong association between music and nature. As he was later to say, "There is music in the air, music all around us, the world is full of it and you simply take as much as you require."
Having left school at the age of 15, he began work for a local solicitor, but after a year embarked on a musical career, conducting piano and violin lessons. At 22 he took up the post of bandmaster at the Worcester and County Lunatic Asylum, a couple of miles to the southwest of Worcester. In many ways, his years as a young Worcestershire violinist were his happiest. He played in the first violins at the Worcester and Birmingham Festivals, and one great experience was to play Antonin Dvorak's Sixth Symphony and 'Stabat Mater' under the composer's baton. Elgar was thrilled by Dvorak's orchestration and this remained an influence on his own style for more than a decade.
At 29, through his teaching, he met (Caroline) Alice Roberts, a Major-General's daughter (shades of Gilbert and Sullivan) and an author of verse and prose fiction. He married her three years later against the wishes of her family, giving her as an engagement present the short violin and piano piece Salut d'amour. The Elgars moved to London to be closer to the centre of British musical life, and Edward started composing in earnest. The stay was unsuccessful, however, and they were obliged to return to Great Malvern, where Edward could earn a living teaching.
During the 1890s Elgar gradually built up a reputation as a composer, chiefly of works for the great choral festivals of the Midlands. The Black Knight, King Olaf (1896), The Light of Life and Caractacus were all modestly successful and he obtained a long-standing publisher in Novello and Company.
In 1899, at the age of 42, his first major orchestral work, the Enigma Variations, was premiered in London under the baton of the eminent German conductor Hans Richter. It was received with general acclaim, establishing Elgar as the pre-eminent British composer of his generation. This work is formally titled Variations on an Original Theme (Enigma). The enigma is that although there are thirteen variations on the "original theme", the 'enigma' theme, which Elgar said 'runs through and over the whole set' is never heard. The following year saw the production in Birmingham of his choral setting of Cardinal Newman's poem The Dream of Gerontius. Despite a disastrous first performance, the work was established within a few years as one of Elgar's greatest.
Elgar is probably best known for the Pomp and Circumstance Marches (1901). Shortly after their composition, Elgar was asked to set the first march to words by A C Benson as a Coronation Ode to mark the coronation of King Edward VII. The suggestion had already been made (allegedly by the future King himself) that words should be fitted to the broad tune which formed the trio section of this march. Against the advice of his friends, Elgar suggested that Benson furnish further words to allow him to include it in the new work. The result was Land of Hope and Glory, which formed the finale of the ode and was also issued (with slightly different words) as a separate song.
Between 1902 and 1914 Elgar enjoyed phenomenal success, made four visits to the USA including one conducting tour, and earned considerable fees from the performance of his music. Between 1905 and 1908 Elgar held the post of Professor of Music at the University of Birmingham. His lectures there caused controversy owing to remarks he made about other English composers and English music in general; he was quoted as saying "English music is white -- it evades everything". His Symphony No. 1 (1908) was given one hundred performances in its first year. However, with the advent of World War I, his music fell out of fashion, and after the death of his wife in 1920 he wrote little of importance. Shortly before her death he composed the magnificent, elegiac Cello Concerto. This suggests that Alice Elgar was the main influence behind his successes, achieving her own ambition through the man of her choice. A fine biography of her has been written by Percy M. Young.
At the end of his life Elgar began work on an opera and accepted a commission from the BBC to compose a Third Symphony. His final illness prevented its completion but the sketches have since been elaborated into a successful symphony in the style of Elgar by the composer Anthony Payne .
The house in Broadheath where he was born is now a museum devoted to him. There is a statue of him at the end of Worcester High Street, facing the cathedral, only yards from where his father's shop once stood.
Elgar is also remembered as a passionate & adventurous early cyclist.
A portrait of Sir Edward Elgar can be found on the British twenty pound note.
Honours and Awards
- 1904 - Elgar was made a knight bachelor. This entitled him to the title 'Sir Edward Elgar', but no post-nominal letters.
- 1911 - he was admitted to the Order of Merit. He was now 'Sir Edward Elgar OM'.
- 1924 - he was made Master of the King's Musick
- 1928 - Elgar was created a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, becoming 'Sir Edward Elgar OM KCVO'.
- 1931 - he was made a baronet, becoming 'Sir Edward Elgar Bt OM KCVO'. A baronetcy is an hereditary knighthood, but is passed on only through the male line. As Elgar had only a daughter, the baronetcy became extinct on his death.
- 1933 - Elgar was promoted within the Royal Victorian Order to Knight Grand Cross. He was now 'Sir Edward Elgar Bt OM GCVO'.
- Michael Kennedy - Portrait of Elgar 3rd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987)
- Jerrold Northrop Moore - Edward Elgar: a creative life (Oxford: OUP, 1984)
- William H. Reed - Elgar as I knew him (Oxford: OUP, 1989)
- Percy Young - Alice Elgar: enigma of a Victorian lady (London: Dobson, 1978)
- Percy Young - Elgar OM: a study of a musician 2nd ed. (London: Purnell, 1973)
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