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The area is divided in five counties, total population of 781,454 (2001). The biggest city is Osijek with a population of 105,074 (2001). Other cities are Slavonski Brod, Vinkovci, Vukovar, Đakovo, Požega, Virovitica, Nova Gradiška, Slatina, Županja , Našice, Valpovo, Belišće.
The region was originally part of the Roman province of Pannonia. In the 7th century a Slavic state owing allegiance to the Avars was established, soon replaced by the (also Slavic) Croats and later part of their kingdom. Slavonia, like the rest of Croatia, became part of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102. It came under Turkish rule in the 16th century and by the Habsburgs by the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699). Southern parts of it became part of the their Military Frontier.
The Revolutions of 1848 changed Slavonia's status to an Austrian crownland, but Slavonia and Croatia were restored to the Hungarian crown by 1868. It became part of the Yugoslav kingdom in 1918, within the Savska banovina after 1929. During World War II, it was part of the Independent State of Croatia, the northern section controlled by Nazi Germany. When the Yugoslav federation was formed after the war, Slavonia became part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia.
When Croatia declared its independence in 1991, Serbs of Krajina established their own state over portions of eastern and western Slavonia. The eastern portion was referred to as the Serbian Autonomous Region of Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium, and it encompassed roughly everything east of Osijek and Vinkovci and northeast of Županja , including the cities of Vukovar and Ilok , as well as all of Baranja. The western portion included the area around Okučani and most of the Psunj moutain. In May 1995, the western region was restored to Croatia in the military Operation Flash . In 1996 the east was turned over to the UNTAES, and reintegrated into Croatia by January 1998.
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