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The Sotho-speaking people have lived in southern Africa since around 15th century. The Basotho nation emerged from the genius diplomacy of Moshoeshoe I who gathered together disparate clans of the sotho origin that had dispersed across southern Africa in the early nineteenth century.
The most significant role Moshoeshoe played as a diplomat was his acts of friendship towards his beaten enemies. He provided land and protection to various people and this strengthened the growing Basotho nation. His influence and followers grew with the integration of a number of refugees and victims of Mfecane.
By the latter part of the 1800s, Moshoeshoe established the nation of the Basotho. He was popularly known as Morena e Moholo/morena oa Basotho (Great chief/king of the Basotho).
Around the 1830s, the Europeans started to move into the mainland of South Africa. Firstly, this led to missionaries from various societies setting up missions with different clans throughout the country. However, this period also marked the beginning of conflict between Europeans and African tribes. The Afrikaners, the Dutch-speaking people of mixed European descent, met the Basotho after they settled in the region of the now Free State province (bordering Lesotho on the west). In an attempt to be prepared for any possible battle, Moshoeshoe asked the missionaries to come and live among his people. He believed that in this way, it would be easier to acquire guns for protection against the Europeans and the Khoikhoi people. The missionaries introduced many new things to the Basotho society in terms of religion, western thought and even livestock and food. The first three missionaries were Thomas Arbousset, Eugene Casalis and Constant Gosselin from the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society (PEMS). They were placed at Morija, where a lot of work was done on creating orthography for the Sesotho language. The first printing press was also established here. Casalis also acted as an advisor to King Moshoeshoe in terms of matters relating to Europeans.
For strategic reasons and mainly for protection against Afrikaners, Basotho became allies with the British Cape Colony in 1843. During the period that followed many wars and conflicts took place between the Basotho, the Afrikaners and English. This happened at the backdrop of increased colonization in Africa by Britain and shifts in possession of the Free State region between the Afrikaners and the British.
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