Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
In most cases a speaker is elected from amongst the members of the assembly by the members, and no whips are allowed in the selection. Nonetheless, a speaker from the ruling party is usually chosen.
In many nations, especially those with the Westminster System of government, the position of Speaker, modelled after the British office, is an official charged with enforcing procedural rules. The speaker decides who may speak and has the powers to discipline members who break the procedures of the house. Ideally, the speaker in a Westminster-derived legislature is politically neutral and is not concerned with substantive issues. In the event of a tie, the speaker is permited to vote, but only according to established conventions.
Despite being an impartial position, the Speaker in a Westminster system has to stand for re-election if they wish to stay. In the Republic of Ireland the Speaker is deemed to have been elected if they seek re-election; in the United Kingdom it is a constitutional convention that no major party will put up a candidate against the 'Speaker seeking re-election'.
Often the speaker performs his duties in a non-partisan manner, but in the United States, the Speaker is the most powerful position in the United States House of Representatives and participates in legislating.
Some nations have a ceremonial president of their lower house of parliament instead of a speaker. It is very rare for an upper house to have a speaker. For example, the House of Lords in the United Kingdom has a Lord Chancellor and upper houses in Australia have presidents.
- Speaker of the British House of Commons
- Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons
- Speaker of the Canadian Senate
- Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives
- Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives
- Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
- Ceann Comhairle (Speaker of the Irish Dáil)
- President of the National Assembly of Quebec
- Speaker of Lok Sabha (House of the People, India)
- Speaker of the Sejm, Poland
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details