Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the CEO of Apple Computer and a leading figure in the computer industry. As co-founder (with Steve Wozniak) of Apple in 1976, he helped popularize the concept of the home computer with the Apple II. Later, he was one of the first to see the commercial potential of the GUI and mouse developed at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center, and saw that these technologies were incorporated into the Apple Macintosh. Jobs is also chairman and CEO of Pixar Animation Studios, a leading producer of computer-animated feature films.
Born to Joanne Simpson and an Egyptian Arab father (name unknown) in Green Bay, Wisconsin, Steven Paul was adopted soon after birth by Paul and Clara Jobs of Mountain View, Santa Clara County, California. His biological sister is the novelist Mona Simpson.
In the autumn of 1974, Jobs returned to California and began attending meetings of the "Homebrew Computer Club" with Wozniak. He and Wozniak both took jobs at Atari Inc., a popular manufacturer of computer games, as game designers. During this time, it was discovered that a slightly modified toy whistle included in every box of Cap'n Crunch cereal was able to reproduce the 2600 Hz supervision tone used by the AT&T long distance telephone system. Jobs and Wozniak went into business briefly in 1974 to build "blue boxes" based on the idea which allowed for free long distance calls.
In 1976, Jobs, then 21, and Wozniak, 26, founded Apple Computer Co. in the Jobs family garage. The first personal computer Jobs and Wozniak introduced was called the Apple I. It sold for $666.66, in reference to the phone number of Wozniak's Dial-A-Joke machine, which ended in -6666.
In 1977, Jobs and Wozniak introduced the Apple II, which became a huge success in the home market and made Apple an important player in the nascent personal computer industry. In 1980, Apple Computer became a publicly traded corporation, and with the successful IPO, Jobs' stature rose further. That same year, Apple Computer released the Apple III, but it met with less success.
As Apple continued to grow, the company began looking for corporate management talent to help manage its expansion. In 1983, Jobs lured John Sculley, an executive with Pepsi-Cola, to serve as Apple's CEO, challenging him, "Do you want to just sell sugared water for the rest of your life, or do you want to change the world?" That same year, Apple also released the technologically advanced but commercially unsuccessful Apple Lisa.
1984 saw the introduction of the Macintosh, the first commercially successful computer with a graphical user interface. The development of the Mac was started by Jef Raskin and the team drew heavily on technology developed elsewhere, such as at Xerox's PARC, but had not yet been commercialized. The success of the Macintosh led Apple to abandon the Apple II in favor of the Mac product line, which continues to this day.
Departure from Apple
While Jobs was persuasive and charismatic evangelist for Apple, critics also claimed he was an erratic and tempestuous manager. In 1985, after an internal power struggle, Jobs was stripped of his duties by Sculley and ousted from Apple.
After leaving Apple, Jobs founded another computer company, NeXT Computer. Like Lisa, NeXT was technologically advanced, but it never became popular, except in the scientific research environment. (Tim Berners-Lee developed the original World Wide Web system at CERN on a NeXT workstation.) NeXT did, however, help the advancement of technologies such as object-oriented programming, PostScript, and magneto-optical devices.
Return to Apple
With the purchase of NeXT, much of the company's technology found its way into Apple products, notably NeXTSTEP, which evolved into Mac OS X. Under Jobs' guidance the company increased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac. It was the first computer that was marketed primarily on its looks (though the iMac did utilize other state-of-the-art features). Since then, appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple.
In recent years, the company has branched out. With the introduction of the iPod portable music player, iTunes digital music software, the iTunes Music Store, the company is making forays into personal electronics and online music. While stimulating innovation, Jobs also reminds his employees that "real artists ship," by which he means that delivering working products on time is as important as innovation and killer design.
Jobs worked at Apple for several years with an annual salary of $1, and this earned him a listing in Guinness World Records as the "Lowest Paid Chief Executive Officer". After Apple returned to profitability, the company dropped the "interim" from his title. His current salary at Apple officially remains $1 per year, although he has traditionally been the recipient of a number of lucrative "executive gifts" from the board, including a $90 million jet in 1999, and just under 30 million shares of restricted stock in 2000-2002.
Jobs is much admired for his consummate skills of persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field" and is particularly evident during his keynote speeches at Apple expos. Not all of his decisions have met with widespread approval, however; Apple's marketing efforts in the 1980s (while excellent from a technical standpoint) were alienating to corporate buyers, who turned to IBM, resulting in a precipitous drop in market share. Microsoft further diminished Apple's lead by later developing its own GUI, Microsoft Windows.
Main article: Pixar.
In 1986 Jobs co-founded (with Edwin Catmull) Pixar, an Emeryville, California computer animation studio. It was formed around what was originally Lucasfilm's computer graphics division, which Jobs bought from its founder, George Lucas, for $10 million. Pixar became famous and successful nearly a decade later with the breakthrough feature movie Toy Story. It has since produced the award-winning films A Bug's Life in 1998, Toy Story 2 in 1999, Monsters Inc in 2001, Finding Nemo in 2003 and The Incredibles in 2004. Their next release, Cars (movie), is due for a 2006 summer release.
The Incredibles received the Academy Award for the best animation film in 77th annual Academy Awards function.
Jobs has been married to Laurene Powell since 1991 and has three children with her. He also has a daughter, Lisa Jobs from a woman whom he didn't marry.
On July 31, 2004 Jobs underwent surgery to remove a cancerous tumor in his pancreas. He had a very rare form of pancreatic cancer, called an islet cell neuroendocrine tumor, which did not require chemotherapy or radiation therapy. During his absence, Tim Cook, head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.
- Steve Jobs Bio
- Steve Paul Jobs by Lee Angelelli
- Steve Jobs' Executive Profile at Apple
- Steve Jobs' Resume
- Creating Jobs: Apple's Founder Goes Home Again (New York Times Magazine, Sunday January 12, 1997)
- Guinness World Records's entry on Steve Jobs, listing him as the "Lowest Paid Chief Executive Officer"
- Anecdotes from Steve Jobs early days in Apple as reported by Andy Hertzfeld
Books and articles
- Cringely, Robert X (1996). Accidental Empires. HarperBusiness. ISBN 0887308554.
- Freiberger, Paul; & Swaine, Michael (1999). Fire in the Valley: The Making of The Personal Computer McGraw-Hill Trade. ISBN 0071358927.
- Deutschman, Alan (2001). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 0767904338.
- Caddes, Carolyn. 1986. Portraits of Success: Impressions of Silicon Valley Pioneers, Tioga Publishing Co., Palo Alto CA.
- Denning, Peter J. and Karen A. Frenkel. April 1989. "A Conversation with Steve Jobs", Comm. ACM, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 437-443.
- Levy, Steven. 1984. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, NY.
- Slater, Robert. 1987. Portraits in Silicon, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, Chapter 28.
- Stross, Randall E., Steve Jobs and The NeXT Big Thing, NY:Atheneum, 1993. ISBN 0689121350
- Young, Jeffrey S. 1988. Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward, Scott, Foresman and Co., Glenview IL.
- Smithsonian Institution Oral History Interview - April 20, 1995
- Wired: The Next insanely Great Thing - February 1996
- Rolling Stone: Steve Jobs: The Rolling Stone Interview - December 03, 2003
- BusinessWeek: The Seed of Apple's Innovation - October 12, 2004
- Fortune: How Big Can Apple Get? - February 2005
|Apple CEOs||As of 2005,|
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