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Addition is one of the basic operations of arithmetic. In its simplest form, addition combines two numbers (terms, summands), the augend and addend, into a single number, the sum. Adding more numbers corresponds to repeated addition. By extension, addition of zero, one or infinitely many numbers can be defined, see below.
See also: counting
When adding finitely many numbers, it doesn't matter how you group the numbers and in which order you add them; you will always get the same result. (See Associativity and Commutativity.) If you add zero to any number, the quantity won't change; zero is the identity element for addition. The sum of any number and its additive inverse (in contexts where such a thing exists) is zero.
If the terms are all written out individually, then addition is written using the plus sign ("+"). Thus, the sum of 1, 2, and 4 is 1 + 2 + 4 = 7. If the terms are not written out individually, then the sum may be written with an ellipsis to mark out the missing terms. Thus, the sum of all the natural numbers from 1 to 100 is 1 + 2 + … + 99 + 100.
Alternatively, the sum can be represented by the summation symbol, which is the capital Sigma. This is defined as:
The subscript gives the symbol for a dummy variable, i. Here, i represents the index of summation; m is the lower bound of summation, and n is the upper bound of summation. So, for example:
One may also consider sums of infinitely many terms; these are called infinite series. Notationally, we would replace n above by the infinity symbol (∞). The sum of such a series is defined as the limit of the sum of the first n terms, as n grows without bound. That is:
One can similarly replace m with negative infinity, and
for some integer m, provided both limits exist.
Relationships to other operations and constants
It's possible to add fewer than 2 numbers:
- If you add the single term x, then the sum is x.
- If you add zero terms, then the sum is zero, because zero is the identity for addition. This is known as the empty sum.
These degenerate cases are usually only used when the summation notation gives a degenerate result in a special case. For example, if m = n in the definition above, then there is only one term in the sum; if m = n + 1, then there is none.
Many other operations can be thought of as generalised sums. If a single term x appears in a sum n times, then the sum is nx, the result of a multiplication. If n is not a natural number, then the multiplication may still make sense, so that we have a sort of notion of adding a term, say, two and a half times.
The most general version of these ideas is the linear combination, where any number of terms are included in the generalised sum any number of times.
The following are useful identities:
(see arithmetic series);
- (see geometric series);
- (special case of the above where N1 = 0)
- (special case of the above, );
(see binomial coefficient);
In general, the sum of the first n mth powers is
where Bk is the kth Bernoulli number.
The following are useful approximations (using theta notation):
for every real constant c greater than -1;
for every real constant c greater than 1;
for every nonnegative real constant c;
for all nonnegative real constants c and d;
for all nonnegative real constants b > 1, c, d.
Approximation by integrals
Many such approximations can be obtained by the following connection between sums and integrals, which holds for any increasing function f:
For more general approximations, see the Euler-Maclaurin formula.
- "C-E, D-F♯, E♭-G, are different instances of the same interval… the other kind of identity… has to do with axes of symmetry. C-E belongs to a family of symmetrically related dyads as follows:"
- Axis pitches italicized, the axis is pitch class determined.
Thus in addition to being part of the interval-4 family, C-E is also a part of the sum-2 family (with G♯ equal to 0).
- Axis pitches italicized, the axis is dyad (interval 1) determined
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