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Symphony No. 4 (Mahler)
The Symphony No. 4 in G major by Gustav Mahler was written between 1899 and 1901.
The symphony is for a fairly small orchestra by Mahler's standards, lacking trombones. It is scored for four flutes, two piccolos, three oboes, a cor anglais, three clarinets, two clarinets in E flat, a bass clarinet, three bassoons, a double bassoon, four French horns, three trumpets, timpani, bass drum, triangle, sleigh bells , glockenspiel, cymbals, tam-tam, a harp and strings. The last movement features a soprano soloist.
The symphony is in four movements:
- Bedächtig, nicht eilen (Moderately, not rushed)
- In gemächlicher Bewegung, ohne Hast (Leisurely moving, without haste)
- Ruhevoll, poco adagio (Peacefully, a little adagio)
- Sehr behaglich (Very comfortably)
After what is for Mahler an unusually restrained first movement, often said to have almost classical poise, the second movement is a scherzo featuring a solo part for a violin tuned a tone higher than usual (see: scordatura). This tuning adds to the rather ghostly and other-worldly nature of the music. The third movement is slow, and essentially a set of variations.
The last movement is a song for soprano, and takes its text from Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Youth's Magic Horn), which had also provided songs for Mahler's second and third symphonies. This movement was written in 1892, and was originally intended by Mahler to be the seventh and final movement of his third symphony before he decided it should instead be the seed for his fourth. The song, "Das himmlische Leben" ("The Heavenly Life"), describes a great feast in heaven.
The full text of this song (with English translation) can be found here: http://www.recmusic.org/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=4501
A typical performance of the whole work lasts around fifty minutes, making it one of Mahler's shortest symphonies.
- World premiere: November 25, 1901, Munich, conducted by the composer.
- American premiere: November 6, 1904, New York City, conducted by Walter Damrosch .
- English premiere: October 25, 1905, London, in a Proms concert conducted by Henry Wood. Wood's wife sang the soprano part.
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