Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Table of Ranks
Table of Ranks (Табель о рангах; Tabel o rangakh) was a formal list of positions and ranks in military, government, and court of the Imperial Russia. It was introduced by Peter the Great in 1722 in his struggle with the existing hereditary nobility, or boyars.
The Table of Ranks determined a person's position and status according to service to the emperor (tsar) rather than to birth or seniority. The Table places every military, civil or court rank in accordance with fourteen grades, ranked from 1 to 14. Every officer of state had to qualify for the corresponding grade in order to be promoted; the grades of 1 to 5 were personal matter of the Emperor.
Even commoners who achieved a certain level on the Table were ennobled automatically. A civil officer promoted to 14th grade was entitled to personal nobility (dvoryanstvo), while 8th grade created him a hereditary noble; military offices enjoyed heredidary nobility starting right with 14th grade (in 1856, the grades required for herededitary nobility were shifted up to 4th grade for civli service and 6th grade for military service). For example, Vladimir Lenin's father progressed in the management of people's education up to the rank of Actual Civil (State) Counsellor (действительный статский советник) (1874), which gave him a privilege of hereditary nobility.
The origins of the Table lie in Russian military ranks, which were extensively modified by Peter the Great with addition of many distinct ranks and specialities. The first variant of the Table included definition and placement of as many as 262 civil and military positions. By the end of 1700s, these were removed in favour of universal grade rank (классный чин). Svita titles such as General-Adjutant, Fliegel-Adjutant etc. do not belong to the Table; these are personal courtesy titles of Emperor's aide-de-camps.
The Table of Ranks was in force until the Russian Revolution.
|Grade (класс)||Civil ranks (чины статские)||Court ranks (чины придворные)||Style of address|
|I||Канцлер (Chancellor) |
Действительный тайный советник 1-го класса (Actual Privy Counsellor, 1st class)
|none||Его/Ваше высокопревосходительство (His/Your High Excellency)|
|II||Действительный тайный советник (Actual Privy Counsellor)|| Обер-камергер (Chief Chamberlain)|
Обер-гофмаршал (Chief Steward Marshal)
|III||Тайный советник (Privy Counsellor)||
Гофмаршал (Steward Marshal)
|Его/Ваше превосходительство (His/Your Excellency)|
|IV||Действительный статский советник (Actual Civil Counsellor)||Камергер (Chamberlain) (1737-1809|
|V||Статский советник (Civil Counsellor)||Церемониймейстер (Ceremonial Master)||Его/Ваше высокородие (His/Your High Ancestry)|
|VI||Коллежский советник (Collegiate Counsellor)|| Камер-фурьер (Chamber Farrier) (until 1884)|
Камергер (Chamberlain) (until 1737)
|Его/Ваше высокоблагородие (His/Your High Nobleness)|
|VII||Надворный советник (Court Counsellor) (since 1745)||-|
|VIII||Коллежский асессор (Collegiate Assessor)||Гоф-фурьер (Steward Farrier)|
|IX||Титулярный советник (Titular Counsellor)||-||Его/Ваше благородие (His/Your Nobleness)|
|X||Коллежский секретарь (Collegiate Secretary)||-|
|XI||Корабельный секретарь (Ship Secretary)||Камер-юнкер (Chamber Junker)|
|XII||Губернский секретарь (Gubernial Secretary||-|
|XIII|| Кабинетский регистратор (Office Registrar) ||-|
|XIV||Коллежский регистратор (Collegiate Registrar)||-|
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