Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Tang Dynasty (唐朝 618-907) followed the Sui Dynasty and preceded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. The dynasty was interrupted by the Second Zhou Dynasty (690-705) when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne.
The Tang Dynasty, with its capital at Chang'an (modern day suburb of Xi'an), the most populous city in the world at the time, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization — equal, or even superior, to the Han period. Its territory, acquired through the military exploits of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han. Stimulated by contact with India and the Middle East, the Empire saw a flowering of creativity in many fields. Buddhism, originating in India around the time of Confucius, continued to flourish during the Tang period and was adopted by the imperial family, becoming thoroughly sinicized and a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. Block printing made the written word available to vastly greater audiences.
The Tang period was the golden age of Chinese literature and art (see Tang Dynasty art). A government system supported by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations was perfected under Tang rule. This competitive procedure was designed to draw the best talents into government. But perhaps an even greater consideration for the Tang rulers, aware that imperial dependence on powerful aristocratic families and warlords would have destabilizing consequences, was to create a body of career officials having no autonomous territorial or functional power base. As it turned out, these scholar-officials acquired status in their local communities, family ties, and shared values that connected them to the imperial court. From Tang times until the closing days of the Qing Empire in 1911, scholar officials functioned often as intermediaries between the grassroots level and the government.
Li Yuan founded the Tang Dynasty but only ruled for a few years before being deposed by his son, Li Shimin, later known as "Tang Taizong". Taizong then set out to solve internal problems within the government. Internal problems have constantly plagued past dynasties. The Emperor had three administrations (省, Shěng): Military Affairs, Censorate, and Council of State. Each administration had its own job.
Near the end of the Tang Dynasty, regional military governors (jiedushi) became increasingly powerful, and began to function more like independent regimes on their own right. The dynasty was ended when one of the military governors, Zhu Wen , deposed the last emperor and took the throne for himself, thereby beginning the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period.
Rulers of the Tang Dynasty
|Temple names||Chinese family names and first names||Reigns||Era names and their according durations|
|Convention: "Tang" + temple name|
|Note: Wu Hou (武后 Wǔ Hòu) (Empress Wu) was posthumous name.|
|Gao Zu (高祖 Gāo Zǔ)||Li Yuan (李淵 Lǐ Yuān)||618-626||Wude (武德 Wǔ dé) 618-626
|Tai Zong (太宗 Tài Zōng)||Li Shimin (李世民 Lǐ Shì Mín)||626-649||Zhenguan (貞觀 Zhēn guān) 627-649
|Gao Zong (高宗 Gāo zōng)||Li Zhi (李治 Lǐ Zhì)||650-683||Yonghui (永徽 Yǒng huī) 650-655
Xianqing (顯慶 Xiǎn qìng) 656-661
|Zhong Zong (中宗 Zhōng zōng), dismissed by Wu Hou||Li Xian (李顯 Lǐ Xiǎn) or Li Zhe (李哲 Lǐ Zhé)||684, (also 705-710)||Sisheng (嗣聖 Sì shèng) 684
|Rui Zong (睿宗 Ruì zōng) , dismissed by Wu Hou||Li Dan (李旦 Lǐ Dàn)||684, (also 710-712)||Wenming (文明 Wén míng) 684
|Wu Hou (武后 Wǔ hòu)||Wu Zetian (武則天 Wǔ Zé Tiān)||684-705||Guangzhai (光宅 Guāng zhái) 684
|Zhou Dynasty (690 AD - 705 AD)|
|Continuation of Tang Dynasty|
|Zhong Zong (中宗 Zhōng zōng), retake the throne||Li Xian (李顯 Lǐ Xiǎn) or Li Zhe (李哲 Lǐ Zhé)||(also 684), 705-710||Shenlong (神龍 Shén lóng) 705-707
|Shao Di (少帝 Shào dì) , see note below the table||Li Chong Mao (李重茂 Lǐ Chóng Mào)||710||Tanglong (唐隆 Táng lóng) 710|
|Rui Zong (睿宗 Ruì zōng), retake the throne||Li Dan (李旦 Lǐ Dàn)||(also 684), 710-712||Jingyun (景雲 Jǐng yún) 710-711
|Xuan Zong (玄宗 Xuán zōng)||Li Long Ji (李隆基 Lǐ Lóng Jī)||712-756||Xiantian (先天 Xiān tiān) 712-713
|Su Zong (肅宗 Sù zōng)||Li Heng (李亨 Lǐ Hēng)||756-762||Zhide (至德 Zhì dé) 756-758
|Dai Zong (代宗 Dài zōng)||Li Yu (李豫 Lǐ Yù)||762-779||Baoying (寶應 Bǎo yìng) 762-763
|De Zong (德宗 Dé zōng)||Li Kuo (李适 Lǐ Kuò)||780-805||Jianzhong (建中 Jiàn zhōng) 780-783
|Shun Zong (順宗 Shùn zōng)||Li Song (李誦 Lǐ Sòng)||805||Yongzhen (永貞 Yǒng zhēn) 805
|Xian Zong (憲宗 Xiàn zōng)||Li Chun (李純 Lǐ Chún)||806-820||Yuanhe (元和 Yuán hé) 806-820
|Mu Zong (穆宗 Mù zōng)||Li Heng (李恆 Lǐ Héng)||821-824||Changqing (長慶 Cháng qìng) 821-824
|Jing Zong (敬宗 Jìng zōng)||Li Zhan (李湛 Lǐ Zhàn)||824-826||Baoli (寶曆 Bǎo lì) 824-826
|Wen Zong (文宗 Wén zōng)||Li Ang (李昂 Lǐ Áng)||826-840||Baoli (寶曆 Bǎo lì) 826
|Wu Zong (武宗 Wǔ zōng)||Li Yan (李炎 Lǐ Yán)||840-846||Huichang (會昌 Huì chāng) 841-846
|Xuan Zong (宣宗 Xuān zōng)||Li Chen (李忱 Lǐ Chén)||846-859||Dachong (大中 Dà chōng) 847-859
|Yi Zong (懿宗 Yì zōng)||Li Cui (李漼 Lǐ Cuǐ)||859-873||Dachong (大中 Dà chōng) 859
|Xi Zong (僖宗 Xī zōng)||Li Xuan (李儇 Lǐ Xuān)||873-888||Xiantong (咸通 Xián tōng) 873-874
|Zhao Zong (昭宗 Zhāo zōng)||Li Ye (李曄 Lǐ Yè)||888-904||Longji (龍紀 Lóng jì) 889
|Ai di (哀帝 Aī dì) or Zhaoxuan di (昭宣帝 Zhāo xuān dì)||Li Zhu (李柷 Lǐ Zhù)||904-907||Tianyou (天佑 Tiān yòu) 904-907
- Benn, Charles. 2002. China's Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517665-0.
- Schafer, Edward H. 1963. The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A study of T’ang Exotics. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1st paperback edition: 1985. ISBN 0520054628.
- Schafer, Edward H. 1967. The Vermilion Bird: T’ang Images of the South. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
- Chinese sovereign
- History of Korea
- History of Japan
- History of Vietnam
- History of Tibet
- An Lushan Rebellion
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details