Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
A tiger team is an individual, or more commonly a collection of individuals, who are employed or contracted by an organization to attempt to break its security, as a means of testing the reliability of that security.
The term originated in the U.S. military, where tiger teams have been known to leave hand-lettered cardboard signs in secure areas with "BOMBS" written on them.
According to the Jargon File entry, it's common for a tiger team penetration to be immediately followed by an unexpected security inspection; base commanders, the file notes dryly, have been known to be relieved.
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