Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee, KBE, (TimBL or TBL) (b. June 8, 1955) is the inventor of the World Wide Web (along with Robert Cailliau) and head of the World Wide Web Consortium, which oversees its continued development.
Early life and career
Berners-Lee was born in London, England, and attended Emanuel School in Wandsworth. He is an alumnus of the Queen's College of Oxford University, where he built a computer with a soldering iron, TTL gates, an M6800 processor and an old television. It was also at Oxford where he was caught hacking with a friend and was subsequently banned from using the university computer.
Proposal and prototype
In 1980, while an independent contractor at CERN, Berners-Lee proposed a project based on the concept of hypertext, to facilitate sharing and updating information among researchers. With help from Robert Cailliau he built a prototype system named Enquire.
After leaving CERN to work at John Poole's Image Computer Systems Ltd, he returned in 1984 as a fellow. He used similar ideas that he used in Enquire to create the World Wide Web, for which he designed and built the first browser (called WorldWideWeb and developed on NeXTSTEP) and the first web server simply called httpd.
The first website
The first website Berners-Lee built (and therefore the first web site) was at http://info.cern.ch/ (which has been archived) and was first put online on August 6, 1991. It provided an explanation about what the World Wide Web was, how one could own a browser, how to set up a web server, and so on. It was also the world's first web directory, since Berners-Lee later maintained a list of other web sites apart from his own.
The journey toward web standards
In 1994, Berners-Lee founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It comprised various companies willing to create standards and recommendations to improve the quality of the Internet.
Many of the World Wide Web Consortium's achievements are able to be seen in many websites on the Internet. In 1996, in conjunction with Håkon Wium Lie, the W3C announced a standard entitled Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). It was not until 2000 and 2001 that popular browsers began to support this standard, which shows Berners-Lee's first goal to maintain the freedom of the Web.
To this day, Berners-Lee maintains a low profile, not intent on gaining popular status.
In December 2004 he accepted a chair (professorship) in Computer Science at the School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, UK. He will be working closely with the University on the Semantic Web — his new project.
While the component ideas of the World Wide Web are simple, Berners-Lee's insight was to combine them in a way which is still exploring its full potential. Perhaps his greatest single contribution, though, was to make his idea available freely, with no patent and no royalties due. In 1994 he founded World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) at the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and in 2003, the organization decided that their standards must be based on royalty-free technology, so they can be easily adopted by anyone.
Weaving the Web
In Berners-Lee's book Weaving the Web, several recurring themes are apparent:
- It is just as important to be able to edit the web as browse it. (Wiki is a step in this direction, although Berners-Lee considers it merely a shadow of the WYSIWYG functionality of his first browser.)
- Computers can be used for background tasks that enable humans to work better in groups.
- Every aspect of the Internet should function as a web, rather than a hierarchy. Notable current exceptions are the Domain Name System and the domain naming rules managed by ICANN.
- Computer scientists have a moral responsibility as well as a technical responsibility.
He currently lives in the Boston area with his wife and two children.
The University of Southampton was the first to recognise Berners-Lee's contribution to developing the World Wide Web with an honorary degree in 1996 and he is currently Chair of the university's Electronics and Computer Science department. He was the first holder of the 3Com Founders Chair at MIT, and is also now a Senior Research Scientist there. He is a Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society, an Honorary Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
On April 15, 2004 he was named as the first recipient of Finland's Millennium Technology Prize for inventing the World Wide Web. The cash prize, worth one million euros (about £663,000 or USD$1.2 million), was awarded on June 15, in Helsinki, Finland by Tarja Halonen.
On January 27, 2005 he was named Greatest Briton of 2004 for his achievements as well as displaying the key British characteristics of "diffidence, determination, a sharp sense of humour and adaptability" as put by David Hempleman-Adams, a panel member. 
- Semantic Web, Berners-Lee's current project.
- Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential Tim Berners-Lee (Foreword), Dieter Fensel (Editor), James Hendler (Editor), Henry Lieberman (Editor), Wolfgang Wahlster (Editor) (The MIT Press, 2005) ISBN 026256212X
- Weaving the Web: Origins and Future of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee (Texere Publishing, 1999) ISBN 0752820907
- Tim Berners-Lee and the Development of the World Wide Web (Unlocking the Secrets of Science) Ann Gaines (Mitchell Lane Publishers, 2001) ISBN 1584150963
- Tim Berners-Lee: Inventor of the World Wide Web (Ferguson's Career Biographies) Melissa Stewart (Ferguson Publishing Company, 2001) ISBN 089434367X children's biography
- How the Web was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web Robert Cailliau, James Gillies, R. Cailliau (Oxford University Press, 2000) ISBN 0192862073
- Berners-Lee's home page
- Berners-Lee's original proposal to CERN
- Berners-Lee's book Weaving The Web which details his views on the history and future of the web.
- World Wide Web Consortium
- The W3 History page
- Archive of the world's first web site (November 13, 1990)
- Sir Tim Berners-Lee
- Tim Berners-Lee laureate of the Millennium Technology Prize
- Profile of Tim Berners-Lee - patron of East Dorset Heritage Trust
- Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web inventor, to join ECS
- School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton
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