Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Treaty of Tientsin
The Treaties of Tientsin (天津條約) were signed in Tianjin in June 1858, ending the first part of the Second Opium War (1856-1860). France, UK, Russia, and the United States were party. These treaties opened eleven more Chinese ports (see Treaty of Nanjing) to the foreigners, permitted foreign legations in Beijing, allow Christian missionary activity, and legalised the import of opium so that millions in China would become addicted.
The major points of the treaties were:
- Britain, France, Russia and the United States would have the right to station legations in Beijing (a closed city at the time)
- Ten more Chinese ports would be opened for foreign trade, including Niuzhuang , Danshui, Hankou and Nanjing
- The right of foreign vessels including warships to navigate freely on the Yangtze River
- The right of foreigners to travel in the internal regions of China for the purpose of travel, trade or missionary activities
- China was to pay an indemnity to Britain and France in 2 million taels of silver respectively, and compensation to British merchants in 2 million taels of silver.
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