Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental gate, usually built to celebrate a victory in war. This tradition dates back to Ancient Rome and the tradition of the Roman triumphs granted by the Senate. A number of arches from the city's imperial era can still be seen in modern Rome.
The Arches of Rome were splendid monuments of triumph, erected in honour of her illustrious generals. They were at first very simple symbolic temporary gateways to the city, being built of brick or hewn stone with a semicircular arched heading and festively hung with trophies of captured arms. Vitruvius, the Roman writer on architecture, does not mention triumphal arches, for they were not yet a major consideration in his day, the 1st century BCE.
About the earliest surviving triumphal arch is the unpretentious Arch of Augustus at Rimini . Afterwards more magnificent arches were built of the finest marble with a large, arched gate in the middle, and sometimes two smaller ones on each side, adorned with columns and bas-reliefs and crowned with statues, often a quadrigia . In the vault of the middle gate, hung winged figures of victory, bearing crowns in their hands, which, when let down, they placed on the victor's head, when he passed in triumph.
By the 2nd century, arches were erected that did not specifically commemorate victories, such as the surviving triumphal arch at Ancona, erected by a grateful city to commemorate Trajan's improvements to the harbor.
Some triumphal arches are made of stone and intended to be permanent. Of twenty-one arches in Rome mentioned in diocuments, five survive (see list below).
Temporary triumphal arches are still constructed, intended to be used for a celebratory parade or ceremony and then be dismantled afterwards.
- Lacus Curtius website: "Triumphal arch" from William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875
List of triumphal arches
Permanent monumental triumphal arches include:
- Siegestor, Innsbruck
- Dijon: Porte Guillaume
- Marseille: Porte d'Aix (1825)
- Montpellier: Porte du Peyrou (1692)
- Nevers: Porte de Paris
- Reims: Porte de Mars
- Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum
- Arch of Trajan, Ancona, erected 113
- Augustan Arch , Aosta
- Arch of Trajan, Beneventum, the Porta Aurea, erected 114
- Arco Campano , Capua
- Arch of Augustus , Fano
- Arch of the House of Lorraine , Florence, erected 1738 - 1759: the first freestanding permanent triumphal arch in Italy since Antiquity
- Arco della Pace , Milan, erected 1807 - 1838
- Arch of Augustus , Rimini, erected 27 CE
- Arch of Constantine, Rome erected 312 - 315
- Arch of Drusus , Rome, erected to honor Nero Claudius Drusus
- Arch of Gallienus , Rome
- Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome, erected 203
- Arch of Titus, Rome (81)
- Susa, erected 7 BCE
- Arco dei Gavi , Verona
- Arch of Triumph (Pyongyang)
- Poklonnaya Hill, Moscow
- Moscow Triumphal Gate, St Petersburg
- Narva Triumphal Gate, St Petersburg
- Cossack triumphal arches in Novocherkassk
- Orlov gates, Gatchina
- Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Arch, Grand Army Plaza, Brooklyn, New York
- Monumental Arch, Galveston, Texas (1987-1990)
- Washington Square, New York, New York
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details