Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Tumbes is a region in northwestern Peru. It is bordered by Ecuador on the east; by the Piura Region on the south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the north and west. Its capital is the city of Tumbes. Due to the region's location near the Equatorial line it has a warm climate, with beaches that are considered among the best in Peru. It is also located in a strategic zone due to the closeness to the border with Ecuador.
Morphologically, the following zones can be defined: the delta of the Tumbes and Zarumilla rivers; an alluvial plain north of the Tumbes river, with dry, low-depth ravines; ancient terraces that have been strongly eroded in the Máncora area and the Amotape mountain chain in the east and south, with its ending point at the El Barco Mountain. The delta of the Tumbes river is shallow and when the tide is low, little sandy keys show up, which get covered by manglares vegetation.
The region's vegetation is composed of the manglares , the plains and the dry forest.
The region is divided into 3 provinces (provincias, singular: provincia), which are composed of 12 districts (distritos, singular: distrito).
The provinces, with their capitals in parenthesis, are:
Tumbes was a populated region well before the Inca Empire. The first settlers were fishers and hunters. Most recent cultures that lived there have left evidence of the refinement in their ceramics, and huacas or ruins that still stand today.
The Inca empire extended its domains up to Tumbes when Inca Pachacútec was ruling. He introduced a new way of organizing the empire, but the task of integrating these people to the empire continued with Inca Tupac Yupanqui . He gave great importance to this region by making it a support point in the conquest of the Cañaris.
The adventure of the Spanish Conquistadores starts in Tumbes. After overcoming countless difficulties, the conquerors were able to land in this fabulous empire of which they had heard many legends. Undoubtedly, the thought of such a rich empire had instilled in their spirit an unwavering will to go on. With the information gathered, the conquerors set off to the rest of the empire, founding cities and overpowering their people.
During colonial times, Tumbes was no more than a crossing point where soldiers and adventurers stopped momentarily to restock themselves, and continue traveling. Tumbes, however, gained permanent importance after Peru's independence, due to its closeness to the Ecuadoran border and this country's territorial claims over northern Peru.
The fact that Tumbes lies so close to the Equator has determined its landscape, which teems in plantlife. The beaches of Tumbes and its warm sea are ideal for surfing and underwater fishing. The beach of Punta Sal is considered one of the finest on the Peruvian coast because of its pure white sands, sun and warm weather all year long, and a sea ideal for water sports. North of the city of Tumbes lies Puerto Pizarro , the gateway to the National Mangroves Sanctuary. The mangroves have formed vast clumps of water-borne forests which have created a unique ecosystem linking the river and the sea. The mangroves are the breeding grounds for black scallops, which are served up in Tumbes' most famous dish, the cebiche de conchas negras.
South of Tumbes lies Zorritos, the town which received its name from workers involved in drilling the first oilwell in the area, back in 1863. Not far from Zorritos lies the Bocapán beach, where visitors can swim in Hervideros, natural hot springs bubbling with iodized salts.
Typical dishes and beverages
Among the most well-known dishes are, the cebiche of black scallops, which come from the Manglares, and banana balls broth with dominicos, meat, red peppers, eggs, olives, raisins, flour, coriander and other herbs.
Other specialties include, the shrimp omelette, chupe de cangrejos, cebiche mixto, and the crab pulp omelette.
A typical beverage in the region is the chinguirito, which is obtained by combining pipa (the milk of a soft coconut) with aguardiente.
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