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The Tupolev design bureau was instructed by the government of then Soviet Union to develop an airliner with intercontinental range based on the Tupolev Tu-95 strategic bomber. The result is a large airliner powered by 4 powerful turboprops. It came as a surprise to western observers, that a propeller-driven aircraft could operate at jet-like speeds. It was huge by 1950's standards, the largest airliner of its time, with accommodation for 120 to 220 passengers.
This airliner has certain unique technological features of its time such as
- swept back wings as in high speed subsonic airliners
- powerful Kuznetsov NK-12MV turboprops, the most powerful ever, each driving two AV-60H counter-rotating four-bladed reverse-pitch propellers
- lower deck galleys
- lower deck crew rest area
- long landing gear due to its big propeller diameter
They are 3 main variants known including the military Tupolev Tu-126.
While the Tu-114 was still being designed, the Tupolev design bureau decided to quickly build three demilitarized Tu-95s, known as the Tu-116, to conduct route and scheduling studies, propulsion system tests, and study compatibility issues with civil airports. Thus Tu-95 were converted by deleting the weapons bay and tail turret and adding a 24 or 30 seat four-abreast pressurized passenger cabin to the aft fuselage. Aeroflot was the sole customer. The Tu-116s were later redesignated by Aeroflot as Tu-114D.
This is the production standard. The Tu-114 incorporated a completely new fuselage of increased diameter permitting greater internal volume. In addition, the wing was mounted lower on the fuselage improving the passenger cabin floor layout. The flight crew was seated in a nose reminiscent of that on the Tu-95 bomber including a glazed window encasing the navigator's position in the extreme nose.
The main cabin was huge by 1950's standards with accommodation for 120 to 220 passengers. After setting a number of records, including a speed record for fastest turboprop-powered aircraft that still stands today, the first of 31 Tu-114s entered service with Aeroflot.
In addition to long-range domestic routes, the Tu-114 also served New Delhi, Havana, Montreal, Paris, and Copenhagen as well as Tokyo in flights operated jointly with Japan Air Lines and flown by mixed Soviet-Japanese crews. The Tu-114 began to be replaced by the Ilyushin Il-62 in 1971 and was withdrawn from civil service in 1975.
Several of the withdrawn Tu-114s were converted into AWACS platforms and redesignated as Tu-126 with NATO codename 'Moss' in service with the Soviet navy.
- Powerplant: Four Kuznetsov NK-12MV turboprop engines, each rated at 11033 kW
- Wingspan : 51.10m
- Length : 54.10m
- Height : 13.31m
- Empty Weight : 88.2 metric tons
- Max Takeoff Weight : 171 metric tons
- Max Payload : 30 metric tons
- Max Range : 3,345 nautical miles (6,200 km)
- Max Speed : Mach 0.78 at 26,000 feet
- Crew : 5 (2 pilots, 1 engineer, 1 navigator and 1 radio/radar operator)
- Passengers : 120 long-range nonstop flights,220 high-density
|Russian Civil Transport Aircraft|
|Design Bureau||Antonov - Beriev - Ilyushin - Kamov - MiG- Mil - Lavochkin - Sukhoi - Tupolev - Yakovlev|
|Type Designation||Tupolev Tu-114|
|Related Variants (civil)||Tu-116|
|Military Variants||Tu-95 - Tu-126 - Tu-142|
|Primary Designation Series|
|Comparable/Similair Aircraft||Boeing 707 - Douglas DC-8 - Vickers VC-10 - Ilyushin Il-62|
|Related Development||Tu-95 - Tu-142|
|Related Lists||List of airliners|
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