Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63)
USS Kitty Hawk
|Laid down:||27 December 1956|
|Launched:||21 May 1960|
|Commissioned:||21 April 1961|
|Home Port:||Yokosuka Naval Base-Yokosuka, Japan|
|Length:||1,047.5 ft (323.8 m)|
|Beam:||129.3 ft (39 m)|
|Extreme Width:||252 ft (76.8 m)|
|Speed:||35 knots (65 km/h)|
|Complement:||4,582 officers and men|
|Armament:||RIM-7 Sea Sparrow surface-to-air missiles|
Kitty Hawk was laid down by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey, 27 December 1956; and launched 21 May 1960, sponsored by Mrs. Neil H. McElroy; and commissioned 21 April 1961 at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Captain William F. Bringle in command. She was the first of the Kitty Hawk class (the other ships of that class being USS Constellation (CV-64) and USS America (CV-66)). Unusually the home port of Kitty Hawk is Yokosuka Naval Base, Japan, making it the world's only permanently forward-deployed aircraft carrier.
Until recently, she was one of only two aircraft carriers ever to be honored with flying the First Navy Jack (as of 2002, all U. S. Navy ships fly this ensign). Kitty Hawk became the ship with the longest active status in the Navy on 30 September 1998, with the decommissioning of USS Independence. Like her half sister Kennedy, Kitty Hawk is a non-nuclear aircraft carrier, and at present one of only two non nuclear carriers still in active service with the Navy, as such she is a high priority item for the Navy to replace.
Following shakedown in the Western Atlantic, Kitty Hawk departed Norfolk 11 August 1961. After a brief stop at Rio de Janeiro, where she embarked the Secretary of the Brazilian Navy for a demonstration of exercise at sea with five Brazilian destroyers, the attack carrier rounded Cape Horn 1 October. She steamed into Valparaiso Bay 13 October and then sailed, 2 days later, for Peru, arriving Callao 20 October where she entertained the President of Peru. At San Diego, Admiral George W. Anderson, Chief of Naval Operations, landed on her deck 18 November to witness antisubmarine demonstrations by Henry B. Wilson (DDG-7) and Blueback (SS-581), a Terrier missile demonstration by Topeka (CLG-8) and air demonstrations by Kitty Hawk.
Kitty Hawk entered San Francisco Naval Shipyard 23 November 1961, for alterations. Following operations out of San Diego, she sailed from San Francisco, 13 September 1962. Kitty Hawk joined the US 7th Fleet 7 October 1962, relieving Midway (CVA-41) as flagship.
After participating in the Philippine Republic Aviation Week Air Show, Kitty Hawk steamed out of Manila Harbor 30 November 1962, and welcomed Admiral Harry D. Felt , Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, for a demonstration of modern naval weapons, 3 December. The ship visited Hong Kong early in December and returned to Japan, arriving at Yokosuka 2 January 1963. During the following 2 months, she visited Kobe, Beppu and Iwakuni before returning to San Diego 2 April 1963.
On 6 June 1963, President John F. Kennedy, with top civilian and military leaders, boarded Kitty Hawk to witness a carrier task force weapons demonstration off the California coast. Addressing the men of the task group from Kitty Hawk, President Kennedy told them that, as in the past, control of the seas still means security, peace and ultimate victory. He later wrote to President and Madam Chiang Kai-Shek who had witnessed a similar demonstration on board Constellation (CVA -64): "I hope you were impressed as I was, on my visit to Kitty Hawk, with the great force for peace or war, which these mighty carriers and their accompanying escorts provide, helping to preserve the freedom of distant nations in all parts of the world."
Following a series of strike exercises and tactics reaching along the California coast and off Hawaii, Kitty Hawk again sailed for the Far East. While approaching Japan, she learned an assassin had shot President Kennedy. Flags were at half mast as she entered Sasebo Harbor 25 November 1963, the day of the President's funeral and, as senior ship present, she had the sad honor of firing memorial salutes. After cruising the South China Sea and ranging to the Philippines in readiness operations with the 7th Fleet, she returned to San Diego 20 July 1964.
1965-1972 (Vietnam War)
Kitty Hawk overhauled in Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, then trained along the western seaboard. She sailed from San Diego 19 October 1965, for Hawaii thence to Subic Bay, Philippines, where she prepared for combat operations off the coast of Vietnam.
Kitty Hawk was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for exceptionally meritorious service from 26 November 1965 to 14 May 1966 while participating in combat operations against the insurgent Communist guerrilla forces in the Republic of Vietnam. The valiant men of her Carrier Air Wing 11 flew over 10,000 sorties and delivered over 10,700 tons of ordnance against enemy forces. The officers and men of Kitty Hawk displayed undaunted spirit, courage, professionalism and dedication to maintain their ship as a fighting unit under the most arduous operating conditions to enable her pilots to destroy vital military targets in North Vietnam despite intense opposition and extremely adverse weather conditions.
Kitty Hawk returned to San Diego in June 1965 for overhaul and training until 4 November 1966 when she again deployed to serve in waters of Southeast Asia. Kitty Hawk arrived at Yokosuka, Japan, 19 November to relieve Constellation as flagship for Rear Admiral David C. Richardson, Commander Task Force 77. On 26 November, Kitty Hawk departed Yokosuka for Yankee Station via Subic Bay, and on 5 December, aircraft from Kitty Hawk began their around-the-clock missions over North Vietnam. About this time Kitty Hawk -- already accustomed to celebrities as guests -- entertained a number of extremely prominent visitors: William Randolph Hearst, Jr.; Bob Considine ; Dr. Billy Graham; and John Steinbeck, among others. She remained in the Far East supporting the fight for freedom in Southeast Asia until departing Subic Bay 28 May 1967. Steaming via Japan, the carrier reached San Diego 19 June and a week later entered the naval shipyard at Long Beach for maintenance. Kitty Hawk returned to San Diego 25 August and began a rigorous training program to prepare her for future action.
On October 12, 1972 during the Vietnam War, Kitty Hawk was en route to her station in the Gulf of Tonkin when a racial brawl involving more than 100 sailors broke out. Nearly 50 sailors were injured in this widely-publicized incident.
1973-1977 (Conversion and reconfiguration)
From January through July of 1973, Kitty Hawk changed homeports from San Diego to Hunter's Point. Kitty Hawk moved into dry dock January 14 of that year, and work began to convert the ship from an attack (CVA) to a multi-mission carrier (CV). The "CV" designation indicated that Hawk was no longer strictly an attack carrier, in that anti-submarine warfare would also become a major role. Kitty Hawk became the first Pacific Fleet carrier to carry the multi-purpose "CV" designation. The conversion consisted of adding 10 new helicopter calibrating stations, installing sonar/sonobuoy readout and analysis center and associated equipment, and changing a large portion of the ship's operating procedures. One of the major equipment/space changes in the conversion was the addition of the Anti-Submarine Classification and Analysis Center (ASCAC) in the CIC area. ASCAC worked in close conjunction with the ASW aircraft assigned aboard Carrier Air Wing 11. During the yard period, the Engineering Department underwent a major change in its propulsion plant. The Navy Standard Oil (black oil) fuel system was completely converted to Navy Distillate Fuel. The Air Department added several major changes to the flight deck, including enlarging the jet blast deflectors (JBD) and installing more powerful catapults in order to handle the new Grumman F-14 Tomcat, which Hawk was standing by to receive for its next deployment. Enlarging JBD#1 meant the No. 1 Aircraft Elevator had to be redesigned, making Kitty Hawk the only carrier at the time having an aircraft elevator which tracked from the hangar deck to the flight deck angling out six degrees. Kitty Hawk moved out of dry dock on April 28, 1973, and the next day, on her 12th birthday, was named a Multi-Purpose Aircraft Carrier (CV).
Kitty Hawk stayed busy throughout the mid-1970s with numerous deployments to the Western Pacific and involvement in a large number of exercises, including RIMPAC in 1973 and 1975.
Kitty Hawk departed San Diego on March 8, 1976, and on March 12 entered dry dock at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Washington, to commence a US$100 million complex overhaul, scheduled to last just more than 12 months. This overhaul configured Kitty Hawk to operate with the F-14 "Tomcat" and S-3A "Viking" aircraft in a total CV sea control mode. This included adding spaces for storage, ordnance handling and maintenance facilities for the two aircraft. Also included in the work package were more efficient work areas for airframes and a repair facility for ground support equipment and the addition of avionics support capability for the S-3. The ship also replaced the Terrier Surface-to-Air missile system with the NATO Sea Sparrow system, and added elevators and modified weapons magazines to provide an increased capability for handling and stowing the newer, larger air-launched weapons. Kitty Hawk completed the overhaul in March 1977, and departed the shipyard April 1 of that year to return to San Diego. After a six month pre-deployment workup, Kitty Hawk departed NAS North Island 25 September 1977 for another WESTPAC and returned 15 May 1978.
In 1979, the ship teamed with Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 15 for another WESTPAC deployment, which included Vietnamese search and assistance operations ordered by then-Commander-in-Chief, President Jimmy Carter, to aid Vietnamese refugees who were attempting to escape the Socialist Republic of Vietnam via small boats. During that deployment, Kitty Hawk also offered contingency support off the coast of Korea following the assassination of Republic of Korea President Park Chung Hee. The deployment was then extended two-and-a-half months to support contingency operations in the North Arabian Sea during the Iranian hostage crisis. For their actions in the region, Kitty Hawk and CVW-15 were awarded the Navy Expeditionary Medal.
Kitty Hawk returned to San Diego in February 1980 and was awarded the Meritorious Unit Commendation and the Naval Air Force Pacific Battle Efficiency "E" as the best carrier in the Pacific Fleet.
In April 1981, Kitty Hawk left San Diego for her 13th deployment to the Western Pacific. Following the cruise, the crew was awarded the Navy Expeditionary Medal and the Humanitarian Service Medal for the rescue of Vietnamese refugees in the South China Sea.
In January 1982, Kitty Hawk returned to Bremerton for another yearlong overhaul. Following the comprehensive upgrade and a vigorous training period with Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 2, Kitty Hawk deployed in 1984 as the flagship for Battle Group Bravo. Kitty Hawk logged more than 62,000 miles on this deployment and remained on station in the North Arabian Sea for more than 60 consecutive days. On 21 March 1984 Kitty Hawk collided with a Soviet nuclear-powered Victor class (Project 671) attack submarine in the Sea of Japan. At the time of the collision, USS Kitty Hawk is estimated to have carried several dozen nuclear weapons, and the submarine probably carried two nuclear torpedoes. The ship returned to San Diego on Aug. 1, 1984. Seven months later, Kitty Hawk was awarded another Battle Efficiency "E" award.
In July 1985, Kitty Hawk and CVW-9 deployed again as flagship for Battle Group Bravo. Kitty Hawk and CVW-9 combined to set a standard for operations, completing their second consecutive fatality-free deployment.
CVW-9 crews logged more than 18,000 flight hours and 7,300 arrested landings while Kitty Hawk maintained her catapults and arresting gear at 100 percent availability.
Kitty Hawk bid farewell to San Diego on Jan. 3, 1987, as the ship departed her homeport of 25 years and set out on a six-month world cruise. During the circumnavigation, Kitty Hawk and CVW-9 again showed their commitment to safety by conducting a third fatality-free deployment. Kitty Hawk spent 106 consecutive days on station in the Indian Ocean and was again awarded the Navy Expeditionary Medal and the Meritorious Unit Commendation for its service. The world cruise ended at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard on July 3. Six months later, Kitty Hawk began a Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) overhaul. Kitty Hawk emerged from the yards on Aug. 2, 1990. The overhaul was estimated to have added 20 years of service to the ship.
On Aug. 1, 1992, Kitty Hawk was appointed as Naval Air Force Pacific's "ready carrier." The ship embarked Commander, Cruiser-Destroyer Group 5; Commander, Destroyer Squadron 17 and CVW-15 for three months of work-ups before deploying to the Western Pacific on Nov. 3, 1992. While on deployment, Kitty Hawk spent nine days off the coast of Somalia supporting U.S. Marines and coalition forces involved in Operation Restore Hope. In response to increasing Iraqi violations of United Nations sanctions, the ship rushed to the Arabian Gulf on Dec. 27, 1992. Just 17 days later, Kitty Hawk led a joint coalition offensive strike against designated targets in southern Iraq.
Kitty Hawk set sail on her 17th deployment June 24, 1994, with the goal of providing a stabilizing influence operating in the Western Pacific during a time of great tension in the Far East, particularly concerning North Korea.
Kitty Hawk began her 18th deployment in October 1996. During the six-month underway period, the ship visited ports in the Arabian Gulf and Western Pacific. Kitty Hawk returned to San Diego April 11, 1997, immediately beginning a 15-month, $110 million overhaul, including three months in dry dock in Bremerton, from January to March 1998.
1998-Present (Homeport: Yokosuka)
Kitty Hawk departed San Diego on July 6, 1998, to assume new duties as America's only permanently forward-deployed aircraft carrier from USS Independence (CV-62). Kitty Hawk also welcomed aboard Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 5, operating from Atsugi, Japan . Kitty Hawk arrived at her new operating location of Yokosuka, Japan, on Aug. 11, 1998.
Kitty Hawk set sail for a planned three-month underway period March 2, 1999, which included Exercise Tandem Thrust off Guam. Following the exercise, the Hawk/5 team was ordered to the Arabian Gulf to enforce the No-Fly Zone over Southern Iraq. CVW-5 pilots flew more than 8,800 sorties in 116 days, including 1,300 combat sorties, dropping more than 20 tons of ordnance. On the return trip to Japan, Kitty Hawk made port visits to Perth, Australia, and Pattaya, Thailand . Kitty Hawk returned to Yokosuka Aug. 25, 1999. She was again underway to the Sea of Japan Oct. 22 to participate in Exercises Foal Eagle and AnnualEx 11G.
On April 11, 2000, Kitty Hawk departed Yokosuka, Japan for routine local area operations and to participate in Exercise Cobra Gold with the navies of Singapore and Thailand. Kitty Hawk participated in Exercise Foal Eagle in Fall 2000, and deployed again in March 2001 for a Spring underway period with a historic stop. On March 22, Kitty Hawk became the first aircraft carrier to ever moor pier-side in Singapore, as the ship visited the brand new Changi Pier, located at the Republic of Singapore Navy's Changi Naval Base. On April 29, shortly after a visit to Guam, Kitty Hawk celebrated 40 years of active service as the ship and crew sailed south to participate in Exercise Tandem Thrust 2001 with the Australian and Canadian navies. The ship returned to Yokosuka June 11, 2001.
In October 2001, Kitty Hawk again made history and helped redefine roles. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks at the Pentagon and World Trade Center, Kitty Hawk deployed to the North Arabian Sea in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. The ship served as an afloat forward staging base for U.S. special forces, showing the continued adaptability of U.S. aircraft carriers.
In April 2002, Kitty Hawk was underway for her scheduled spring training. Along with a Guam port call, the spring underway included port visits to Singapore and Hong Kong, where the crew celebrated Kitty Hawk's 41st birthday. In the fall of 2002, Kitty Hawk was training in the Western Pacific. Kitty Hawk and her battle group combined with U.S. Air Force units and elements of the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force to conduct AnnualEx 14G in the waters surrounding Japan. Later, Kitty Hawk's crew made a port visit to Hong Kong, where they celebrated Thanksgiving.
In January 2003, while undergoing routine training in waters near Japan, Kitty Hawk took on a new nickname - the "Battle Cat" -- reflecting her continued strong presence in naval operations.
Orders were received in February 2003 to transit to the U.S. Central Command area of responsibility to support the Global War on Terrorism and to prepare for future contingencies. Kitty Hawk was soon involved in Operations Southern Watch and Iraqi Freedom in the North Arabian Gulf, serving 104 continuous days at sea. Kitty Hawk returned to Yokosuka May 6, 2003, immediately entering an extensive dry-dock period, or dry-docking ship's restricted availability (DSRA).
Kitty Hawk's ship’s restricted availability (SRA) successfully came to an end with the conclusion of sea trials January 15, 2005.
USS Kitty Hawk is scheduled to decommission in 2009 and be replaced by USS George H.W. Bush. When Kitty Hawk decommissions, she may be replaced by USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), the Navy's only other conventionally powered aircraft carrier, as the Navy's forward-deployed carrier in Yokosuka, Japan.
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