Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aviation branch of the United States armed forces. The mission of the USAF is "to defend the United States and protect its interests through air and space power". It was created as a separate branch on September 18, 1947.
OrganizationThe Department of the Air Force consists of the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force (SECAF), the Air Staff, and field units.
The Office of the SECAF includes the Secretary, Under Secretary, Assistant Secretaries, General Counsel, The Inspector General, Air Reserve Forces Policy Committee, and other offices and positions established by law or the SECAF. The Office of the SECAF has responsibility for acquisition and auditing, comptroller issues (including financial management), inspector general matters, legislative affairs, and public affairs.
The Air Staff primarily consists of military advisors to the CSAF and the SECAF. This includes the Chief of Staff, Vice Chief of Staff, and Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, the Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force (CMSAF), four deputy chiefs of staff (DCS), the US Air Force Surgeon General, The Judge Advocate General, the Chief of the Air Force Reserve, and additional military and civilian personnel as the SECAF deems necessary.
The Department of the Air Force field units are MAJCOMs, field operating agencies (FOA), and direct reporting units(DRU).
Major commands (MAJCOMs)
The USAF is organized on a functional basis in the United States and a geographical basis overseas. A major command (MAJCOM) represents a major Air Force subdivision having a specific portion of the Air Force mission. Each MAJCOM is directly subordinate to HQ USAF. MAJCOMs are interrelated and complementary, providing offensive, defensive, and support elements. An operational command consists (in whole or in part) of strategic, tactical, space, or defense forces; or of flying forces that directly support such forces. A support command may provide supplies, weapon systems, support systems, operational support equipment, combat materiel, maintenance, surface transportation, education and training, or special services and other supported organizations. The USAF is organized into nine MAJCOMS, reporting to Headquarters, United States Air Force (HQ USAF):
|Major Command and Commanders||Location of Headquarters|
|Air Combat Command (ACC)||Langley Air Force Base, Virginia|
|Air Education & Training Command (AETC)||Randolph Air Force Base, Texas|
|Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC)||Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio|
|Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC)||Robins Air Force Base, Georgia|
|Air Force Space Command (AFSPC)||Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado|
|Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC)||Hurlburt Field, Florida|
|Air Mobility Command (AMC)||Scott Air Force Base, Illinois|
|U.S. Air Forces Europe (USAFE)||Ramstein Air Base, Germany|
|U.S. Air Forces Pacific (PACAF)||Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii|
Numbered Air Forces (NAF)
The NAF is a level of command directly under a MAJCOM. NAFs are tactical echelons that provide operational leadership and supervision. They are not management headquarters and do not have complete functional staffs. Many NAFs are responsible for MAJCOM operations in a specific geographic region or theater of operations. A NAF is assigned subordinate units, such as wings, groups, and squadrons.
The 15th and 21st Air Forces were formerly Numbered Air Forces, but have since been realigned as Expeditionary Mobility Task Forces (EMTF) under the 18th Air Force. The 15th EMTF is at Travis AFB, California while the 21st EMTF is located at McGuire AFB, New Jersey.
Air Forces were at one time composed of two or more air divisions, but this organization has become obsolete and unused. Air divisions were composed of two or more wings.
The wing is a level of command below the NAF. A wing has approximately 1,000 to 5,000 personnel and a distinct mission with significant scope. It is responsible for maintaining the installation and may have several squadrons in more than one dependent group. A wing may be an operational wing, an air base wing, or a specialized mission wing.
An operational wing is one that has an operations group and related operational mission activity assigned to it. When an operational wing performs the primary mission of the base, it usually maintains and operates the base. In addition, an operational wing is capable of self-support in functional areas like maintenance, supply, and munitions, as needed. When an operational wing is a tenant organization, the host command provides it with varying degrees of base and logistics support.
Air Base Wing
Some bases which do not have operational wings will have an air base wing (ABW). The ABW performs a support function rather than an operational mission. It maintains and operates a base. An air base wing often provides functional support to a MAJCOM headquarters.
Wings are composed of several groups with different functional responsibilities. Groups are composed of several squadrons, each of which has one major responsibility or flying one type of aircraft. Squadrons are composed of two or more flights.
Other Air Force organizations
|Air Force Institute of Technology||Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio|
|Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency||Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida|
|Air Warfare Center||Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada||ACC|
|Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center||Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma||AFMC|
|Air Mobility Warfare Center||Fort Dix, New Jersey|
For a detailed history, see United States Air Force--History .
In December 1906, the U.S. military began its relationship with aviation by authorizing Army Specification #486, which called for the creation of an aircraft for military usage. Just three years earlier, the Wright Brothers first experienced heavier-than-air flight, and they signed a contract with the Army on February 10, 1908.
In 1917, upon the United States' entry into World War I, the U.S. Army Air Service was formed as part of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF). Major General Mason Patrick commanded the AEF air forces; his deputy was Major General Billy Mitchell. The Air Service provided tactical support for the U.S. Army, especially during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne offensives. Among the aces of the Air Service were Captain Eddie Rickenbacker and Frank Luke.
In 1926 the Air Service was reorganized as a branch of the Army and became the U.S. Army Air Corps (USAAC). During this period, the USAAC began experimenting with new techniques, including air-to-air refueling and the development of the B-9 and the Martin B-10, the first all-metal monoplane bomber, and new fighters. In 1937, the B-17 Flying Fortress made its first appearance. In a spectacular feat of navigation, three B-17s intercepted the Italian passenger liner Rex at sea.
In 1941, the Army Air Corps became the U.S. Army Air Force and the GHQ Air Force was redesignated the Air Force Combat Command. In the major military reorganization effective March 9, 1942, the newly designated Army Air Forces gained equal voice with the Army and Navy.
In Europe, the USAAF began daylight bombing operations, over objections of the Royal Air Force planners on the Combined Chiefs of Staff. The US strategy involved flying bombers together, relying on the defensive firepower of a close formation. The tactic was only successful in part. American flyers took tremendous casualties during raids on the oil refineries of Ploiesti, Romania and the ball-bearing factories at Schweinfurt and Regensburg, Germany. When the P-51 Mustang, with its increased range, was introduced to combat, American combat losses dropped, and operations during Big Week in late winter of 1944 caused the Luftwaffe to lose experienced pilots.
In the Pacific theater, the USAAF used the B-29 Superfortress to launch attacks on the Japanese mainland from China. One of the major logisitical efforts of the war, "flying the Hump" over the Himalayas, took place. To carry both a bomb load and fuel and to bomb at high altitude through the jet stream affected the B-29's range. As soon as airbases on Saipan were captured in 1944, General Curtis LeMay changed strategy from high-level precision bombings to low-level incendiary bombings, aimed at destroying the distributed network of Japanese industrial manufacturing. Many Japanese cities suffered extensive damage. Tokyo suffered a firestorm in which over 100,000 persons died.
The United States Department of the Air Force was created when President Harry S. Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947. It became effective September 18, 1947, when Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson administered the oath of office to the first secretary of the Air Force, Stuart Symington.
In 1948, Communist authorities in Eastern Germany cut off road and air transportation to West Berlin. Military Airlift Command supplied the city during the Berlin airlift, using C-121 Constellation and the C-54 Skymaster. The Royal Air Force also played a significant role in flying tonnage into the city with Avro Yorks, Avro Tudors and Douglas Dakotas.
The Korean War saw the Far Eastern Air Force losing its main airbase in Kimpo, South Korea, and forced to provide close air support to the defenders of the Pusan pocket from bases in Japan. However, General Douglas B. MacArthur's landing at Inchon in September 1950 enabled the FEAF to return to Kimpo and other bases, from which they supported MacArthur's drive to the Korean-Chinese border. When the Chinese People's Liberation Army intervened in December, 1950, the USAF provided tactical air support. The introduction of the Soviet-made MiG-15 caused problems for the B-29s used to bomb North Korea, but the USAF countered the MiGs with the F-86 Sabre.
The USAF played a significant role in the preparations for the 1991 Gulf War, and the use of USAF, U.S. Naval, and other Coalition air power damaged the Iraqi infrastructure and combat abilities for six weeks, before the ground phase of the war began.
After the war, the USAF took the lead role in maintaining "no-fly zones" over northern and southern Iraq until the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq.
The United States Air Force currently employs a designation and naming system to identify all aircraft type with distinct names. Until 1962, both the Army and Air Force maintained one system, while the US Navy maintained a separate system. In 1962, these were unified into a single system heavily reflecting the Army/Air Force method. For more complete information on the workings of this system, refer to United States Department of Defense Aerospace Vehicle Designations.
- Pilot Badge
- Navigator Badge
- Aircrew Badge
- Flight Surgeon Badge
- Speciality Badge
- Medical Badge
- Religious Pin
A full list of Air Force badges is displayed through the article Military badges of the United States
- Ranks and Insignia of NATO
- Comparative military ranks
- Civil Air Patrol
- Flight surgeon
- Evolutionary Air and Space Global Laser Engagement
- List of air forces
- List of U.S. Air Force bases
- Air Force Specialty Code
- Life support (aviation)
- Aircraft maintenance
- Official USAF website
- USAF History Support Office
- Air Force Historical Research Agency
- USAF Museum
- US military air bases by GlobalSecurity.org
- USAF organization and units by GlobalSecurity.org
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