Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
There is some confusion over these names for ethnic groups. It would be good to get all Wikipedia articles in this area to reach a consensus of style and definition.
- Articles beginning with Aram-
- Aram — disambiguation page
- Aram-Naharaim — badly written stub
- Aram-naharaim — redirect to Aram-Naharaim
- Aram naharaim — redirect to Aram-Naharaim
- Aramaea — badly written stub
- Aramaean — redirect to Arameans
- Aramaeans 7mdash; redirect to Arameans
- Aramea — redirect to Aramaea
- Aramean — redirect to Arameans
- Arameans — badly written article
- Aramæa — redirect to Aramaea
- Aramæan — redirect to Arameans
- Aramæans — redirect to Arameans
- Articles beginning with Assyr-:
- Assyria — decent article on ancient Assyria
- Assyria Liberation Party
- Assyria and Babylonia contrasted — decent stub
- Assyrian — confused and misleading article
- Assyrian/Revision — confused and misleading rewrite
- Assyrian Christians — redirect to Assyrian Church of the East
- Assyrian Church — redirect to Assyrian Church of the East
- Assyrian Church of the East
- Assyrian Democratic Movement — substub
- Assyrian Empire — redirect to Assyria
- Assyrian Genocide
- Assyrian flag — redirect to Flag of Assyria, baddly written article
- Assyrian language — disambiguation page
- Assyrians — redirect to Assyrian
- Assyriska — Swedish football team
- Assyriska FF — redirect to Assyriska
- Assyro-Babylonian Language — redirect to Akkadian language
- Assyro-Babylonian culture — a badly written article
- Assyro-Chaldeans — a very helpful article
- Articles beginning with Chald-:
- Chaldaea — redirect to Chaldea
- Chaldea — not brilliant article
- Chaldean — a confused disambiguation page
- Chaldean Catholic Church — half decent article
- Chaldean Liturgy — redirect to Chaldean Catholic Church
- Chaldean Syrian Church of the East — redirect to Assyrian Church of the East
- Chaldean language — redirect to Chaldean
- Chaldeans — looks the same as Assyro-Chaldeans
- Chaldee — redirect to Aramaic language
- Chaldees — redirect to Chaldea
- Articles beginning with Syr-:
Assyrian (people) - work in progress
The Assyrian people, originating in what is now northern Iraq, northwestern Iran and eastern Turkey, continue the cultural heritage of ancient Assyria, and is an ethnic group that is traditionally Christian and speaking modern Aramaic. The Assyrians, Chaldeans and Syriacs or Aramaeans form together a distinct group of Aramaic-speaking Christians in the Middle East. There is no clear consensus among members of these groups as to the exact definition of these terms.
(OPTIONAL) Main article: [[History of <GROUP>]].
Probable history of the ethnic group. Topics can include:
- Major migrations
- Origins of ethnic group and/or origins of its identity
- If this is an extinct group or an extinct classification, its demise
In what countries/regions are people of this ethnicity found, and how many are there in each country.
Then, for each country that seems relevant, a separate section, as follows:
(OPTIONAL) Main article: [[History of <GROUP> in <COUNTRY>]].
This is an area to be particularly careful about POV and about attribution of statements. In particular, it is important to distinguish persecution from mere prejudice and informal status from formal status.
Some areas that may merit coverage are:
- Percent of the population of country in <YEAR>. Multiple years may be relevant if changes are dramatic.
- First arrived in country when?
- formal status (past and present): For example:
- In the United States, some Native American tribes are officially "recognized" by the government.
- In many countries, there are set-aside parliamentary seats, recognized 'minority languages', etc.
- In South Africa in the apartheid era, various ethnic groups has an official status of less than full citizenship.
- in the United States prior to the Civil War, chattel slavery of African-Americans.
- movements for separatism, autonomy, self-rule, irredentism, etc.
- levels of assimilation/acculturation (e.g. what is the predominant language among the ethnic group in that country)
- formal and informal restrictions on ethnic culture/language in that country (e.g. laws against Kurdish-langague broadcasts in Turkey, laws against wearing the hijab in France, Germany)
- informal institutions of oppression in that country. For example:
- In the United States, until the second half of the 20th Century, many neighborhoods had effective covenants against Afro-Americans and Jews.
- In many European countries, there is enough prejudice against Gypsies to be a clear factor of oppression.
- The genocidal Interahamwe attacks on Tutsis in 1990s Rwanda.
- informal institutions of protection in that country. For example:
- The protection of Moslems and Jews by the Mongols during the Mongol rule over China
- Russian sponsorship of various Slavic minorities in the Ottoman Empire
- Examples of contitutional protection of minority ethnic rights in the US.
(OPTIONAL) Main article: GROUP Culture .
For those ethnicities not closely connected to a nation state, this is the place to discuss issues similar to what we would cover for the culture of a nation state. Typically (though not always), if a nation state exists, we can just point to that article.
Is this group closely associated with a particular language or languages? What other language(s) do they commonly use? Obviously, if they have a language uniquely their own, that needs to be handled according to Wikipedia:WikiProject Languages.
Is this group closely associated with a particular religion? What other religion(s) do a large number of them adhere to?
(OPTIONAL) Main article: GROUP literature . Description of a body of literature or authors associated with the ethnic group. Could also refer to articles on the languages used or the countries in which they live: e.g. Literature of XXXX Country .
Description and discussion of artifacts, architecture, or inventions that are unique or different when practiced by members of the group.
Countries, regional governments, para-states, ethnic political parties, ethnically-based liberation movements, etc. closely associated with this ethnicity
(Optionally) a description of larger ethnic classifications under which this group falls.
Applicability of the term "ethnic group" to <GROUP>
(Optionally) Discuss any controversies about defining of <GROUP> as an ethnic group (other than those which apply to the notion of "ethnic group" in all cases).
In many cases these issues are country-specific and are better taken up somewhere under Geography. Also, this section is subject to retitling (e.g. "Applicability of the term 'tribe' to the Pequot" -- see Wikipedia:WikiProject Ethnic Groups/Pequot). Again, remember, these templates are only suggestions.
List of subgroups of the ethnicity. Major subgroups with lots of information should probably have their own article.
- Assyrian Church of the East
- Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
- Chaldean Catholic Church
- Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
- Syriac language
- Syriac Orthodox Church
This should nearly always include references for the population statistics. See Armenian (people) for a good example.
- Euroamericans:US Census 2000 — lists Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac as 82,355.
Syriac Orthodox Church - work in progress
The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. It is a major inheritor of Syriac Christianity and has Syriac, a dialect of Aramaic, as its official language. The church is led by the Syrian Patriarch of Antioch. The church is often referred to as Jacobite or Monophysite, but these terms are misleading, and not appreciated by the majority of the church today. In 2000, a Holy Synod ruled that the name of the church in English should be the Syriac Orthodox Church. Before this, it was, and often still is, known as the Syrian Orthodox Church. The name was changed to disassociate the church from the polity Syria. The official name of the church in Syriac is `Idto Suryoyto Trişuth Shuvħo, this name has not changed, nor has the name changed in any other language.
The Syriac Orthodox Church is one of a number of churches that represent one of the earliest regions of church growth, north and east from Jerusalem. It was in the city of Antioch (modern day Antakya in southeast Turkey) that Christians were first so called (Acts 11:26). Traditionally, Saint Peter established the church in Antioch, and was the city's first bishop. Ignatius of Antioch (martyred c.107) was bishop of the city, and a prominent apostolic father. By the 4th century, the bishop of Antioch had become the most senior bishop in the region (covering modern day eastern Turkey, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Iran). The Antiochene church became a centre of Christian learning, second only to Alexandria. Antiochene theology was greatly influenced by Rabbinic Judaism and other modes of Semitic thought. However, the Christian community was linguistically divided between Hellenized, Greek-speakers, who lived in the west, and Syriac and Aramaic-speakers to the east. As the Hellenized party leaned more and more towards the newly Christian Roman Empire, those further east found themselves alienated. The church became divided by the Nestorian Schism, when Antiochene christology as understood in other parts of church was condemned by the Council of Ephesus in 431. The Assyrian Church of the East came to represent those Syriac-speaking Christians living in the Persian Empire who sought to direct their affairs witout referrence to the western churches. The School of Antioch then came under the influence of Alexandrian theology, this influence led to sections of the Syriac and Egyptian churches being condemned for monophysitism, the belief that Christ has one 'nature', at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. It is unlikely that many in either of these churches were extreme monophysites (see Eutyches and Apollinarism, and simply misunderstood the Byzantine position of two natures as proposing some kind of schizophrenia. Part of the problem was the translation of documents between Greek, Syriac and Coptic, and the growing fragmentation of Byzantine authority (the Patriarch of Antioch at Chalcedon (Maximus II) had been consecrated by the Patriarch of Constantinople without the necessary support of the Antiochene clergy). Around 469, Peter the Fuller was consecrated as Patriarch of Antioch after forcing the dismissal of his predecessor. He followed a popular, strong anti-Chalcedonian line. He added the words 'who was crucified for us' (Syriac deşţlevt ħlophain) to the Trisagion Hymn (Syriac Qadišat Aloho), as a test of anti-Chalcedonian faith. Peter the Fuller was deposed and restored to the See of Antioch three times, as the political landscape of the Byzantine Empire shifted back and forth. In 512, Severus of Antioch, another strong anti-Chalcedonian, was consecrated Patriarch of Antioch. He became the foremost theologian of the anti-Chalcedonian cause, and his works are held in high regard by Syriac Orthodox Christians to this day. In 518, he fled from Antioch to avoid arrest and banishment.
Clergy and monks
- The order of bishops (ephisquphe):
- Patriarch (Paţriarko)
- Maphrian/Catholicos (Maphryono/Qathuliqo)
- Archbishop (Arkiephisqupho)
- Bishop (Ephisqupho)
- The order of presbyters (qashishe):
- Chorepiscopus (Kurephisqupho)
- Presbyters (Qashisho)
- The order of deacons (mshamshone):
- Archdeacon (Arkidyaqono/Rish daMshamshone/Rabmshamshono)
- (Evangelical) Deacon (Ewangeloyo)
- Subdeacon (Apodyaqono/Pelguth Mshamshono)
- Reader (Qoruyo)
- Singer (Mzamrono)
Other titles are:
- Malphono - teacher.
- Kohno - priest, presiding minister
- Rish Dayro - abbot, archimandrite
- Dayroyo - monk.
- Dayroyto - nun.
Aykano dbašmayo oph bar`o
Hab lan laħmo dsunqonan yowmono
Wašbuq lan ħawbayn waħtohayn
Aykano doph ħnan šbaqan lħayobayn
Lo ta`lan lnesyuno
Elo paşo lan men bišo
Meţul ddilokh hi malkutho
- Our Father in heaven
Hallowed be your name
Your kingdom come
Your will be done
As it is in heaven, so on earth
Give us our daily bread today
And forgive us our sins and debts
As we forgive those who sin against us
Do not lead us into temptation
But deliver us from evil
Because yours is the kingdom
And the power and the glory
For ever and ever
Qadišath Lo Moyutho
- Holy God
Who was crucified for us
Have mercy upon us
The Syriac Orthodox Church (also Syrian Orthodox Church) is an autocephalous Christian church of Syria, Iraq, and India, recognizing the Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch as its spiritual head. It is in communion with the Coptic Church and other Oriental Orthodox churches. It is sometimes also called the Jacobite Orthodox Church after Jacob Baradaeus, a 6th century monophysite bishop.
The head of this Syrian Orthodox Church is the Patriarch H.H. Moran Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwas, who resides in Damascus, the capital of the Arameans. The Church has about 26 archdioceses and 11 Patriarchal Vicariates . Some estimate that the church has about four million members globally.
Both it and the chalcedonian Antiochian Orthodox Church claim to be the sole legitimate church of Antioch and successor of the Apostle St. Peter. There are also three uniate churces headed by Patriarchs of Antioch: The Syrian Catholic Church, the Maronites and the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. There is also an unrelated (so called nestorian) Assyrian Church of the East.
- List of Patriarchs of Antioch - to 518
- Syrian Patriarch of Antioch - list from 518
- Indian Orthodox Church
- Saint Thomas Christians (Nasrani)
- Article about the history of the Syriac Orthodox Church (German)
- Syriac Orthodox Resources
- Suryoyo Online
- Syrian Orthodox dioceses
Holidays, feasts and observances
Western Christian calendar
- Advent 1
- Advent 2
- Advent 3
- Advent 4
- Christmas Eve
- Christmas Day
- Christmas 1
- Christmas 2
- Epiphany of the Lord
- Baptism of Christ
- Epiphany 2
- Epiphnay 3
- Epiphany 4
- Presentation of Christ
- Epiphany 5/Sunday between 3 and 9 February
- Epiphany 6/ Sunday between 10 and 16 February
- Epiphany 7/Sunday between 17 and 23 February
- Epiphany 8 (RCL)
- Second Sunday before Lent (C of E)
- Epiphany 9/Sunday next before Lent
- Ash Wednesday
- Lent 1
- Lent 2
- Lent 3
- Lent 4
- Mothering Sunday (C of E alternative)
- Lent 5
- Palm Sunday (Lent 6)
- Monday in Holy Week
- Tuesday in Holy Week
- Wednesday in Holy Week
- Maundy Thursday
- Good Friday
- Easter Eve
- Easter Vigil
- Easter Day
- Easter 2
- Easter 3
- Easter 4
- Easter 5
- Easter 6
- Ascension Day
- Easter 7
- Pentecost (Whitsunday)
- Trinity Sunday
- Thanksgiving for Holy Communion (Corpus Christi)
- Bible Sunday (C of E alternative)
- Dedication Festival (C of E alternative)
- 4 before Advent/RCL Proper 26
- All Saints' Sunday
- All Saints' Day 1 November (C of E alternative)
- 3 before Advent/RCL Proper 27
- 2 before Advent/RCL Proper 28
- Christ the King
- 1 January - Naming and circumcision of Jesus
- Second Sunday of Christmas Epiphany Sunday Blessing of chalk
- Handsel Monday
- 6 January - Epiphany
- Distaff day/Rock Day
- 8 January - Lucian, priest and martyr (BCP)
- First Sunday of Epiphany Baptism of Christ Plough Sunday
- Covenant service
- 10 January - William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1645
- Plough Monday
- 11 January - Mary Slessor, missionary in West Africa, 1915
- 12 January - Aelred of Hexham, Abbot of Rievaulx, 1167; Benedict Biscop, Abbot of Wearmouth, scholar, 689
- 13 January - Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers, teacher of the faith, 367; 20th day after Christmas - traditional end to Scandinavian Yuletide; halfway between Christmas and Candlemas; Kentigern (Mungo), missionary bishop in Strathclyde and Cumbria, 603; George Fox, founder of the Society of Friends, 1691.
- Second Sunday of Epiphany Holy Name Sunday
- 17 January - Antony of Egypt, hermit, abbot, 356; Charles Gore, bishop, founder of the Community of the Resurrection, 1932
- 18 January - Week of Prayer for Christian Unity begins; Prisca, Roman virgin and martyr (BCP)
- 19 January - Middle of Epiphanytide ; Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester, 1095
- 20 January - St Agnes' Eve (dream of future husband); Richard Rolle of Hampole, spiritual writer, 1349; Fabian, Bishop of Rome and martyr, 250
- 21 January - St Agnes Day, child-martyr at Rome, 304: Pope blesses two lambs for the pallia.
- 22 January - Vincent of Saragossa, deacon, first martyr of Spain, 304
- Third Sunday of Epiphany
- Education Sunday
- Christian Unity Sunday
- 24 January - Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva, teacher of the faith, 1622
- 25 January - Conversion of Paul; end of Week of Prayer for Christian Unity; Burns Night
- 26 January - Timothy and Titus, companions of Paul
- 27 January - Holocaust Memorial Day
- 28 January - Thomas Aquinas, priest, philosopher, teacher of the faith, 1274; Octave of St Agnes
- Fourth Sunday of Epiphany Candlemas Sunday Sexagesima Homelessness Sunday
- 31 January - Thomas Merton's birthday (1915); John Bosco, priest, founder of the Salesian teaching order, 1888
- 1 February - Brigid, Abbess of Kildare, c. 525
- 2 February - Candlemas, the Presentation of Christ in the Temple
- 3 February - St Blaise, throat blessing
- Egg Saturday - Saturday before Lent
- Quinquagesima, Shrove Sunday
- Collop Monday - Monday before Lent
- Shrove Tuesday
- Ash Wednesday
- 13 February - 50,000 killed in Allied bombing of Dresden in 1945
- 14 February - Saint Valentine's Day
- 17 February - Janani Luwum martyred 1977
- 22 February - Thinking Day , marking the joint birthday of Lord and Lady Baden-Powell
- 1 March - Saint David's Day - Dydd Dewi Sant - Welsh Petron Saint
- Midlenten Thursday
- World Book Day - first Thursday in March
- Women's World Day of Prayer - first Friday in March
- 5 March - Saint Piran's Day - Cornish Patron Saint
- Mothering Sunday
- Fairtrade Fortnight - begins on first Monday in March
- 8 March - International Women's Day
- Passion Sunday
- Commonwealth Day - second Monday in March
- 15 March - the Ides of March
- 17 March - Saint Patrick's Day, Patron Saint of Ireland
- Palm Sunday
- Maundy Thursday
- Good Friday
- Easter Eve
- Low Sunday
- Hock Monday , Monday after Low Sunday
- Hock Tuesday, day after Hock Monday
- Lady Day - 25 March
- Wikipedia:WikiProject Bible
- Wikipedia:WikiProject Islam
- Wikipedia:WikiProject Judaism
- Wikipedia:WikiProject Jesus
- Wikipedia:WikiProject Saints
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