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Venezuelan War of Independence
Venezuelan Independence War in 1811-1812 was Venezuela's first war for independence from Spanish colonial rule. It was part of Bolívar's War, a series of revolutionary wars led by South American general Simón Bolívar.
The Latin American independence movement was launched a year after Simon Bolívar's return from Europe, as Napoleon's invasion of Spain unsettled Spanish authority. Bolívar himself participated in many conspiratorial meetings, and on April 19, 1810, the Spanish governor was officially deprived of his powers and expelled from Venezuela. A junta took over. To obtain help, Bolívar was sent on a mission to London, where he arrived in July. His assignment was to explain to England the plight of the revolutionary colony, to gain recognition for it, and to obtain arms and support. Although he failed in his negotiations on all these counts, he did foster the cause of the revolution by persuading the exiled Francisco de Miranda, who in 1806 had attempted to liberate Venezuela single-handedly, to return to Caracas and to assume command of the independence movement.
Venezuela was in ferment. In March 1811 a national congress met in Caracas to draft a constitution. After long deliberation it declared Venezuela's independence on July 5, 1811. Bolívar now entered the army of the young republic and was placed in charge of Puerto Cabello , a port vital to Venezuela. Treasonable action by one of Bolívar's officers opened the fortress to the Spanish forces, and Miranda, the commander in chief, entered into negotiations with the Spanish commander in chief. An armistice was signed in July 1812 which left the entire country to the mercy of Spain. Miranda was turned over to the Spaniards, some authorities say at Bolívar's instigation, and spent the rest of his life in Spanish dungeons.
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