Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- This page is about the city in Italy; for other uses, see Verona (disambiguation).
Verona (population est. 260,000) is an ancient town, episcopal see and province in the Veneto, Northern Italy. The ancient town, and the centre of the modern city, is situated in a loop of the Adige River near Lake Garda.
Verona was supposedly founded by Etruscans or by the Eugaei or Raeti tribes, but the first historical records are from the 4th century BC. It became a notable political and commercial center during Roman times. During the middle ages, it was the capital of the Italian Kingdom of Theodorich.
Verona was flooded in 1239 and largely rebuilt. The city reached the pinnacle of its political influence during the 14th century as the seat of power of the della Scala family (also known as the Scaligeri).
After the Venetian domination, Verona had known the French revolution and become part of the Cisalpine Republic. With the fault of Bonaparte, it become part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia and one of the fortress group called Quadrilatero .
For its importance, Verona is a UNESCO world heritage.
Verona is famous for its Roman amphitheatre, the Arena where opera is now performed in the summer months. The Arena (whose shape and use immediately recall the Roman Colosseum) was built in the mid-1st century AD on a site which at the time was outside the city walls. The ludi (shows and games) played in it were so famous that spectators came to Verona for them from many other (sometimes very distant) places. The amphitheatre could host more than 30,000 spectators, and the most requested events were gladiators' fights (against lions too). The round fašade was originally in white and pink limestone from Valpolicella, but during the Middle Ages the Arena was used as a sort of quarry for other buildings. The first interventions to recover its functionality as a theatre were started during the Renaissance.
But other Roman monuments too are in the town, like the Roman theatre, built in the 1st century BC and retrieved in the 18th century thanks to Andrea Monga, a wealthy Veronese who bought all the houses that in time had been built over the theatre, demolished them and saved the monument. Verona hosts indeed one of the richest collections of Roman remains of all Northern Italy.
The Arco dei Gavi (Gavi Arch), dedicated to the important Roman family of the Gavii, was built in the same 1st century AD, and is famous for having the name of the builder (architect Lucius Vitruvius Cordone ) engraved on it, a really rare case in the architecture of the epoque. It had been demolished by the French troops in 1805 and was rebuilt in 1932.
- Girolamo Fracastoro also known by his Latin name Fracastorius - renowned scholar, physician and poet
Verona was the birthplace of Catullus, Vitruvius, and the town that Julius Caesar selected for his relaxing stays. In its history many important names passed and events happened that were relevant for the European history, like Theodoric the Great, king of Ostrogoths, Alboin and Rosamunda , the Lombard Dukes, Charlemagne and Pippin of Italy, Berengar I , Dante. Conclaves were held here, as were important congresses. Verona was in the travel diaries of Goethe, Stendhal, Paul ValÚry.
Verona is the setting of the story of Romeo and Juliet, made famous by William Shakespeare. Although the earliest version of the story is set in Siena, not Verona - the move was made in Luigi da Porto's Istoria novellamente ritrovata di due Nobili Amanti - a balcony falsely claiming historical connection to the fictional lovers has become a tourist attraction for lovers; the wall beneath it is covered with their graffiti.
The colors of the city are the yellow and the blue.
Things from Verona (and sometimes people) are called Veronese. The most famous example of this can lead to confusion, however, as the Renaissance painter, Paolo Veronese is often referred to as simply "Veronese".
- The official website of Verona municipality
- The official website of Arena
- Gavi Arch details
- Up to date travel guide for Opera Season
- Association Chiese Vive for the medieval churches of Verona
- UNESCO world heritage explication
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