Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Vladimir Kosma Zworykin (July 30, 1889 - July 29, 1982) was a pioneer of television technology. Zworykin invented the iconoscope , a television transmitting tube, and the kinescope, a cathode ray tube that projects pictures it receives onto a screen. He also invented an infrared image tube and helped develop an electron microscope.
Zworykin lived through many historic events. Born in Murom, Russia in 1889, he studied at the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology . He was eventually hired by one of his instructors, Boris Rosing, who was seeking ways of extending human vision. By 1907, Rosing had developed a television system which employed a mechanical disc system as a camera, and a cathode ray tube as a receiver. The system was primitive, but it was more electronic than mechanical.
At the outbreak of World War I, Zworykin decided to leave Russia for the United States in 1919. With the Russian Revolution, Rosing went into exile and died. Zworykin carried on his work. Zworykin found a job with Westinghouse. Based on their pioneering efforts in radio, he tried to convince them to do research in television. Turning down an offer from Warner Brothers, Zworykin worked nights, fashioning his own crude television system. In 1923, Zworykin demonstrated his system before officials at Westinghouse and applied for a patent. All future television systems would be based on Zworykin's 1923 patent. Zworykin describes his 1923 demonstration as "scarcely impressive".
Westinghouse officials were not prepared to base an investment in television on such a flimsy system. The company's suggestion was that Zworykin devote his time to more practical endeavours. Undeterred, Zworykin continued in his off hours to perfect his system. He was so persistent that the laboratory guard was instructed to send him home a 2:00 in the morning if the lights of the laboratory were still on. During this time,. Zworykin managed to develop a more sophisticated picture tube called the Kinescope, which serves as the basis of the television display tubes in use today.
In 1929, Vladimir Zworykin invented the all electric camera tube . Zworykin called his tube the Iconoscope (literally "a viewer of icons"). He demonstrated both the iconoscope and kinescope to the Institute of Radio Engineers. Zworykin's all-electronic television system demonstrated the limitations of the mechanical television system. In attendance was David Sarnoff, who eventually hired Zworykin to develop his television system for RCA.
Under Sarnoff's watchful eye, Zworykin continued to develop the electronic system. When Zworykin started at RCA, his system was scanning 50 lines. Experimental broadcasts started in 1930, first using a mechanical camera transmitting at 120 lines. By 1933, a complete electronic system was being employed, with a resolution of 240 lines. Zworykin had originally told Sarnoff it would cost $200,000 to develop a television system, the final cost was estimated at about $50,000,000.
Zworykin was not alone. By 1934, two British electronic firms, EMI and Marconi, created an all-electronic television system. They used the Emitron camera tube based on the Iconoscope, as EMI had a patent licensing agreement with RCA. This electronic system was officially adopted by the BBC in 1936. It consisted of 405 scanning lines, changing at twenty five frames per second.
Between 1952 and 1986 the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers adminstered The Vladimir K. Zworykin Award "for outstanding technical contributions in the field of electronic television." "I hate what they've done to my child...I would never let my own children watch it." - Vladimir Zworykin on his feelings about watching television.
Russian inventor, Vladimir Zworykin invented the cathode-ray tube called the kinescope in 1929. The kinescope tube was sorely needed for television. Zworykin was one of the first to demonstrate a television system with all the features of modern picture tubes. Zworykin also invented the iconoscope in 1923 -- a tube for television transmission used in the first cameras. The iconoscope was later replaced but it laid the foundations for early television cameras.
Vladimir Zworykin was born in Murom, 200 miles east of Moscow, and studied electrical engineering at the Imperial Institute of Technology. Boris Rosing, a professor in charge of laboratory projects, tutored Zworykin and introduced his student to his experiments of transmitting pictures by wire. Together they experimented with a very early cathode-ray tube, developed in Germany by Karl Ferdinand Braun. Rosing and Zworykin exhibited a television system in 1910, using a mechanical scanner in the transmitter and the electronic Braun tube in the receiver. Rosing disappeared during the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Zworykin escaped and briefly studied X-rays under Paul Langevin in Paris, before moving to the United States in 1919, to work at the Westinghouse laboratory in Pittsburgh. In 1926 he received a Ph.D from the University of Pittsburgh. On November 18, 1929, at a convention of radio engineers, Zworykin demonstrated a television receiver containing his kinescope.
Vladimir Zworykin was transferred by Westinghouse to work for the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in Camden, New Jersey, as the new director of the Electronic Research Laboratory. RCA owned most of Westinghouse at that time and had just bought the Jenkin's Television Company, makers of mechanical television systems, in order to receive their patents (see C. F. Jenkins). Zworykin made improvements to his iconoscope, RCA funded his research to the tune of $150,000. The further improvements allegedly used an imaging section which was similar to Philo Farnsworth's patented dissector. Patent litigation forced RCA to start paying Farnsworth royalties.
Vladimir Zworykin 1889-1982 Vladimir Zworykin invented the cathode-ray tube called the kinescope in 1929, the kinescope is a tube needed for television transmission. The Iconoscope - Baird Vs Zworykin Learn about the early television camera. Vladimir Zworykin Television, a short essay. The Farnsworth Vs Zworykin Debate Who invented the electronic television system first?
- A 1975 interview with Vladimir Zworykin
- Zworykin's biography at the IEEE History Center
- Compilation of biographies of Vladimir Zworykin- including photopgraphs and bibliography, compiled by Prof. Eugenii Katz of The Hebrew University.
- Recipients of the IEEE Vladimir K. Zworykin Award
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details