Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Voskhod (Восход, translated as "Sunrise") was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight (see Voskhod programme). It was a development of and a follow-on to the Vostok spacecraft.
The craft consisted of a spherical descent module (diameter 2.3 meters), which housed the cosmonauts, and instruments, and a conical instrument module (mass 2.27 tonnes, 2.25 m long, 2.43 m wide), which contained propellant and the engine system.
The Voskhod spacecraft is basically a Vostok spacecraft that has had a backup, solid fuel retro rocket, added to the top of the descent module. The ejection seat was removed and two or three crew couches were added to the interior at a 90 degree angle to that of the Vostok crew position. In the case of Voskhod 2, an inflatable exterior airlock was also added to the descent module opposite the entry hatch. After use, the airlock was jettisoned. There was no provision for crew escape in the event of a launch or landing emergency. A solid fuel braking rocket was also added to the parachute lines to provide for a softer landing at touchdown. This was necessary because, unlike the Vostok, the crew lands with the Voskhod descent module.
In order to create more space inside the descent module, the cosmonaut's ejection seat was removed, meaning that the Voskhod crews would return to Earth inside their spacecraft, unlike the Vostok cosmonauts who ejected and parachuted down separately. The lack of space also meant that the Voskhod 1 crew did not wear space suits. Both crew members wore spacesuits on the Voshkod 2 mission, as it involved an EVA and using an airlock. The second crew member wore a spacesuit as a precaution against the possibility of accidental descent module depressurization. Because the crew was required to land with the descent module, a new landing system to slow the craft was developed. This added a small solid-fuel rocket to the parachutes lines. It fired as the descent module neared touchdown, providing a softer landing than did Vostok. A backup solid fuel retro rocket was added to the top of the descent module. The original Vostok spacecraft only had one liquid fuel retro rocket and no provision for back up. The Vostok did carry enough onboard supplies for a 10-day flight. This would allow for natural orbit decay and reentry if the retro rocket failed. Finally, the Voskhod 2 spacecraft carried a large inflatable airlock that allowed cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov to exit and re-enter the craft.
The airlock carried on Voskhod 2 weighed 250 kg, was 700 mm in diameter, 770 mm high when collapsed for launch. When extended in orbit, the airlock was 2.5 m long. It had an internal diameter of 1.0 m and an external diameter of 1.2 m.
Voskod 3KD (Voskhod 2) spacecraft specifications
Reentry Module: Voskhod SA. Also known as: Spuskaemiy apparat - 'Sharik' (sphere).
- Crew Size: 2
- Length: 2.3 m
- Diameter: 2.3 m
- Mass: 2,900 kg
- Heat Shield Mass: 837 kg
- Recovery equipment: 151 kg
- Parachute deploys at 2.5 km altitude
- Crew lands in spacecraft. Touchdown rocket softens landing.
- Ballistic reentry acceleration: 8 g (78 m/s²)
Equipment Module: Voskhod PA. Also known as: Priborniy otsek.
- Length: 2.25 m
- Diameter: 2.43 m
- Mass: 2,300 kg
- Equipment in pressurized compartment
- RCS Propellants: Cold gas (nitrogen)
- RCS Propellants: 20 kg
- Main Engine (TDU): 397 kg
- Main Engine Thrust: 15.83 kN
- Main Engine Propellants: Nitrous oxide/amine
- Main Engine Propellant Mass: 275 kg
- Main Engine Isp: 266 kgf·s/kg (2.61 kN·s/kg)
- Main Engine Burn Time: 1 minute (typical retro burn = 42 seconds)
- Spacecraft delta v: 155 m/s
- Electrical System: Batteries
- Electric System: 0.20 average kW
- Electric System: 24.0 kW h
Auxiliary Retrorocket Module: Voskhod KDU. Also known as: Engine unit
- Length: 0.60 m
- Diameter: 0.25 m
- Mass: 143 kg
- Engine Thrust: 118 kN
- Engine Propellants: Solid
- Propellant Mass: 87 kg
- Engine Isp: 224 kgf·s/kg (2.20 kN·s/kg)
- Spacecraft delta v: 60 m/s
- Total Mass:5,682 kg
- Total Length: 5.0 m
- Endurance: Supplies for 14 days in orbit
- Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57
- Typical orbit: 163 km x 591 km, 64.8 inclinaton
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