Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Whiskey class submarine
|Displacement (not identical for all variants):||Surfaced: about 1,080 tons|
Submerged: about 1,350 tons
|Length||76.0 meters (Whiskey Long Bin: 83.3 meters)|
|Maximum speed (probably not the same for all variants, cruise missile carrying variants presumably were slower)||18.5 knots surfaced|
13 knots submerged (7 knots while using the snorkel)
|Range on surface||8,580 miles at 10 knots|
|Complement||54 (more on the cruise missile variants)|
|Armament:||Torpedoes: 12 533mm torpedoes or 22 mines. Four torpedo tubes in the bow, two in the stern.|
Anti-aircraft artillery: :25-mm anti-aircraft gun (only on Whiskey I, II, and IV), 57-mm anti-aircraft gun (only on Whiskey II)
Whiskey class submarines (locally known as project 613, 644, and 665) are a class of military submarines that the Soviet Union built in the cold war period. The design was a less capable version of the German Type XXI U-boat of the World War II era.
Between 1949 and 1958 a total of 236 submarines of this type were commissioned into the Soviet navy . The vessels were initially designed as coastal patrol submarines. These patrol variants are known in the west as Whiskey I, II, III, IV, and V; and were called project 613 in the Soviet Union. In the 1950s and 1960s some patrol vessels were converted to guided missile submarines. These boats had the capability to fire one to four SS-N-3 Shaddock cruise missiles. In 1956, the first prototype was ready. It was a regular Whiskey class submarine which was fitted with a launch tube after the sail that contained a single SS-N-3 anti-shipping missile. This vessel was known in the west as Whiskey Single Cylinder. Between 1958 and 1960, six additional whiskey class submarines were converted to carry guided missiles. These boats had two missile tubes behind the sail, and were known in the west as Whiskey Twin Cylinder (Soviet designation:Project 644). Between 1960 and 1963, six boats received an extended sail that could contain four Shaddock missiles. These were called Whiskey Long Bin in the West and Project 665 in the Soviet Union. All guided missile variants of the Whiskey class had to surface in order to fire their missiles. The boats of the single and twin cylinder class also had to raise their missile tubes, which were normally positioned horizontally.
When the boats became obsolete, some were converted to radar picket boats (which were called Whiskey Canvas Bag). Two vessels were converted to submarines for 'fishery research' and 'oceanographic research' purposes. In the Soviet navy, the patrol variants of this class were replaced by Romeo class submarines. The guided missile variants were replaced by Juliet class submarines.
The Soviet Union has exported patrol submarines of the Whiskey class to:
- Albania (four vessels)
- Bulgaria (two vessels)
- China (five vessels, and another 21 built locally from parts that were provided by the Soviet Union)
- Egypt (seven vessels)
- Indonesia (twelve vessels, and two as a source of spare parts)
- North Korea (four vessels)
- Poland (five vessels)
Incidents involving Whiskey class submarines
- On or about 15 December 1952, the Soviet Whiskey class submarine S-117 was lost due to unknown causes in the Sea of Japan. The boat was possibly involved in a collision with a surface ship, or struck a mine.
- On 27 January 1961, the Soviet Whiskey class submarine S-80 was lost due to accidental flooding while the boat was submerged. The valve that should have prevented water from entering the snorkel did not work properly.
- On 21 October 1981, the Soviet Whiskey class submarine S-178 was rammed and sunk by RFS Refrizkerator-13 in Golden Horn Bay .
- On October 27 1981, the Soviet Whiskey class submarine U-137 ran aground in Swedish territorial waters near a naval base. Some people thought that the boat was on an intelligence-gathering mission. Others attribute the running aground to a navigational error, which was the explanation that the Soviet Union gave at the time.
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