Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Witch-king of Angmar
The Witch-king was originally a human lord but in the Second Age he was given one of nine Rings of Power to help rule over his realm. He and eight others were already in the service of Sauron, the Dark Lord of Mordor. The Rings gave them much power which they used to further their, and their lord Sauron's goals, but eventually the Rings turned them into the Nazgūl.
The Witch-king became the lord of the Wraiths, and Sauron's chief servant.
The Second and Third Ages
The first sighting of the Nazgūl in Middle-Earth was reported in 2251 of the Second Age. For the next 1200 years, the Lord of the Nazgūl would serve Sauron as his second in command. The Lord of the Nazgūl fought in the war against the Last Alliance of Elves and Men between 3430 and 3441 of the Second Age. It was in 3441 that Sauron was destroyed and the nine Nazgūl disappeared from Middle-Earth.
One thousand years into the Third Age, Sauron took a new form as the Necromancer and in 1050 of the Third Age, he founded the fortress of Dol Guldur in southern Mirkwood. This signaled the return of the Nine Nazgūl to Middle-earth.
The Lord of the Nazgūl reappeared in 1300 of the Third Age in the north near the lost realm of Arnor. There he founded the kingdom of Angmar. It is after the formation of Angmar and several conflicts with the Dśnedain of the North that the Lord of the Nazgul received the title of Witch-King, Lord of Angmar.
He then began his open war campaign with the three divided kingdoms of Arnor (Arthedain, Rhudaur , and Cardolan). In 1409 of the Third Age, the Witch-King invaded the kingdom of Rhudaur and Cardolan and eventually destroyed both kingdoms. Soon, the only resistance against the Witch-King's forces was the western kingdom of Arthedain. The Witch-King continued his war for hundreds of years. In 1636, the Witch-King sent wights, evil spirits, to the Barrow-downs in Cardolan in order to prevent the rebirth of the kingdom. The Witch-King’s ultimate victory in the north was in 1974 of the Third Age when his forces captured Fornost Erain, the capital of the kingdom of Arthedain. With its capture, the final kingdom collapsed, and with it, the last remnants of the lost realm of Arnor was destroyed.
The Witch-King gladly took his seat of power in the newly captured Fornost. But his glory did not last long, for in 1974 of the Third Age, a general of Gondor named Eärnur landed at the harbors of Mithlond, leading an army of Gondorians. His army was joined by the Elves of Lindon and the remnant of the northern Dśnedain and marched on the Witch-King.
But they did not meet the Witch-King at Fornost, but on the plains east of it toward Lake Evendim, home of the ancient kings of Arnor, Annśminas. The battle would forever be known as the Battle of Fornost. Earnur’s army was later join in the mists of battle by Glorfindel and his Elven army from Rivendell. The combined forces of Elves and Men brought utter defeat to the Witch-King and his forces. After the battle, the Witch-King fled south to Mordor and his kingdom of Angmar without an able leader, was destroyed. It was when the Witch-King fled and Earnur attempted to follow that Glorfindel stopped him and made his famous prophecy,
- "His time has not yet come. And not by the hands of a Man shall he fall."
The Witch-King finally made it back to Mordor in the year 1980 of the Third Age.
When the Witch-King returned, his wrath of defeat still burned within. In 2002, the Witch-King lead the Nazgūl on a siege of Minas Ithil. They finally captured it in the name of Sauron and renamed it Minas Morgul, the Tower of Black Sorcery. It was at Minas Morgul that the Witch-King made his stronghold, giving him the title of Lord of Morgul.
In 2043, King Eärnil II of Gondor passed away and his son, the Witch-King's old enemy, Eärnur inherited the throne. Upon his coronation, the Witch-King challenged him to combat, but Eärnur refused. However, seven years later in 2050, the Witch-King again challenged him, this time he accepted. Eärnur rode out of Minas Tirith to meet the Witch-King in Minas Morgul. He entered the city's gates and was never seen again, thus ending the reign of the Gondorian Kings and causing the beginning of the ruling Stewards of Gondor.
No more than twelve years after the siege of Minas Ithil, Osgiliath was next in the Witch-King's line of sight. He lead hoards of Orcs and Haradrim against the city. The city had already been devastated centuries before by a plague, and the Witch-King's forces ruined what remained of the city and destroyed the great bridge linking the east and west banks of the Anduin river. This was a devastating blow to the morale of Gondor.
In 2941, the Necromancer was finally expelled from Dol Guldur when Gandalf confirmed that he truly was Sauron in disguise. Sauron returned to Mordor and began preperations to find his One Ring. He began the reconstruction of his dark tower, Barad-dur, in 2951 and sent three Ringwraiths to re-capture Dol Guldur. And in 3018, with the capture of Gollum, Sauron learned the location of the Ring from two words uttered by Gollum, "Shire...Baggins." Sauron opened the gates of Minas Morgul and sent forth the Witch-King and the other Nazgul disguised as Black Riders to fetch his Ring.
The War of the Ring had begun.
The War of the Ring and Downfall
The Witch-King and the other eight Nazgūl rode swiftly from Mordor to the lands of the Shire. They continued to search for "Baggins" until they tracked him to Buckland. The Nine Riders raided Buckland but could not find the Ring.
The Witch-King led four other Nazgūl to Weathertop where they discovered Frodo, Strider, and the other hobbits. The Ringwraiths attacked the party and the Witch-King wounded Frodo with a Morgul blade. Though successfully driven off by Strider, Frodo's wound threatened to turn him into a wraith like the Nazgūl. Elrond of Rivendell sent Glorfindel (Arwen in the film) to guide Frodo to Rivendell where Elrond could heal his wound. Glorfindel's race to Rivendell lured the Ringwraiths into the Bruinen. Here, Elrond and Gandalf the Grey released a great flood in the form of horses made out of water. This flood killed the horses of the Ringwraiths and sent them back to their master in Mordor, buying the Fellowship time to plan an attack.
With their return to Mordor, Sauron bestowed the Nazgūl with fell beasts, great winged beasts as their new mounts. Sauron used the lesser eight Nazgūl for reconnaissance work and the occasional shock troop. The Witch-King, however, returned to Minas Morgul and reassumed the role of commander of Sauron's forces. He then began battles to capture Osgiliath.
The final battle for Osgiliath was fought on March 13, 3019 of the Third Age against Faramir's rangers. Faramir's forces could not hold the Orc hordes under the control of Gothmog. Faramir pulled his forces back to Minas Tirith but the Steward Denethor sent him back. Orc arrows rained upon Faramir's force, slaughtering them as they rode to Osgiliath. Faramir was the sole survivor of the assault and returned to Minas Tirith gravely wounded. With Gondor's defeat at Osgiliath, nothing stood in the way of Sauron's ambitions of destroying Minas Tirith and the Free People's hopes.
On March 14, Orcs, Haradrim, and Easterling forces numbering over 200,000 marched on the gates of Minas Tirith. Sauron had bestowed the Witch-King with newfound strength, making his might the greatest it ever had been. Equipped with new armor, he rode in, leading the army to the gates. Before dawn on the 15th, the great battering-ram Grond was used to break the city's main gate, and the Witch-King rode into the city unchallenged, save by Gandalf. Before Gandalf's strength was put to the test, however, the cock crowed and the horns of Rohan were heard as around 6,000 of their riders joined the battle. This forced the Witch-King to ride out to face this new threat.
The Witch-King mounted his fell beast and began slaughtering the Rohirrim. Théoden attempted to rally his troops to form a resistance against him. The Witch-King responded by personally intervening in the fray involving the Rohirric King. Flying on the back of his fell beast, he drove upon Théoden. The advancing Rohirrim's horses panicked as his beast attacked. Théoden's horse, Snowmane, became frightened and was struck by an arrow and fell upon its master.
- "Begone, foul dwimmerlaik, lord of carrion! Leave the dead in peace!"
- "Come not between the Nazgul and his prey!"
- "Do what you will, but I will hinder it, if I may."
- "No living man may hinder me!"
- "I am no man. You look upon a woman!"
Eowyn slew his fell beast in a single strike. The Witch-King arose filled with malice and attacked. Though a powerful warrior, Eowyn was no match for the Witch-King's might. With a single strike of his mace, he shattered her shield and broke her left arm.
As he towered over her, preparing to deliver the final blow, Merry rushed behind him and plunged his enchanted sword into the back of Witch-King's knee, breaking the spell that held the Morgul Lord's immortality. Eowyn took the opportunity to strike. As he fell to his knees, Eowyn rose. She then thrust her sword into the neck of the Witch-King, causing him to wither and pass away from this world.
The prophecy of Glorfindel so many centuries before had finally come to pass. For not by the hands of a "man" had he fallen. With his death, the turn of the battle had changed and ultimately the outcome. No more then ten days later, Sauron himself was finally destroyed when the One Ring was finally cast back into the fires of Mount Doom.
The Witch-king's true name is never given, and therefore among Tolkien fans, the Witch-king is often simply called Angmar, after the name of the realm he founded and led. Many fans also identify him as one of the three Black Nśmenóreans under the Nazgūl.
In the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, Eowyn challenges the Witch-King with the words: "Begone, foul dwimmerlaik, lord of carrion! Leave the dead in peace!" . Dwimmerlaik was used more generally in Rohan to designate a spirit or an unclean ghost. It is supposed that the word "dwimmerlaik" is formed from the Old English words "gedwimer" (sorcery), and "lic" (corpse).
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