Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Wladislaus II of Poland
Wladislaus II Jagiello (Polish Władysław II Jagiełło, Lithuanian Jogaila, and in Belarusian as Jahajla (Ягайла)) (c.1350-1434), grand duke of Lithuania from 1377 (or 1378) until 1392 (or 1401), became king of Poland as Wladislaus II in 1386 after converting to Christianity and marrying Jadwiga, second of Poland's Angevin rulers.
His original name was Jogaila (Jagiello) and his Christian name was Wladislaus (Polish: Władysław also seen Vladislaus, Ladislaus, Ladislas or Vladislav)
- Royal title in Latin: Wladislaus Dei gracia rex Polonie necnon terrarum Cracovie, Sandomirie, Syradia, Lancicie, Cuiavie, Lithuanie princeps supremus, Pomoranie Russieque dominus et heres etc.
- English translation: Vladislaus by God's grace king of Poland, and lands of Cracow, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kuyavia, high-prince of Lithuania, lord and heir of Pomerania and Ruthenia.
- Polish translation: Władysław, z Bożej łaski król Polski, ziemii krakowskiej, sandomierskiej, sieradzkiej, łęczyckiej, kujawskiej, Wielki Książe Litewski, dziedzic Pomorza i Rutenii.
Jogaila (or Jagiello) was from the dynasty of dukes and grand dukes of Lithuania Gediminaičiai. His father was Algirdas (ruled 1345-1377) (or Olgerd), duke of Lithuania, a son of Gediminas. He was born in the present day state of Belarus.
With the Union of Krewo in 1385, Jagiello married Queen Jadwiga of Poland (who was then only 11 years old) and established the Jagiellonian dynasty, which would rule in Poland and Lithuania until 1572. At the same time, Jagiello accepted Roman Catholicism, as did some other Lithuanian nobles. After the death of Jadwiga and their newborn daughter in 1399, Jagiello ruled for another 35 years as Władysław II Jagiełło (Wladislaus II).
The Jagiellonian era is usually characterised as the start of Poland's "golden age", and saw the country become a major European power and extend its frontiers to the north and east.
Jagiello's conversion marked the establishment of Catholic Christianity as the official religion of Lithuania following a brief period of Catholic kingship in the 1250s. Though pagan beliefs continued in the country for some time, the Lithuanian nobility gave its support to the new order upon being promised (in 1401) a voice in the election of the future Polish-Lithuanian rulers.
In military terms, his reign is noted for the crushing defeat inflicted on the Teutonic Knights in neighbouring Province of Prussia by Polish, Lithuanian, Smolensk and Tatar forces at the Battle of Grunwald 1410.
Jagiello was the first of the dynasty of Lithuanian dukes who were also kings of Poland (1386-1572). He was succeeded by his son Wladislaus III, and after his death at battle of Varna by second son Casimir IV. Previously people from this dynasty, called Gediminaičiai, were great dukes of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and after the Krėva Union, Jogaila adopted both titles (Grad duke of Lithuania and King of Poland). Later, however, up until the Union of Lublin, the title of Grand duke of Lithuania was disputed and not always belonged to same person as title of King of Poland. However, both titles were used to be held by members of same Gediminaičiai dynasty who were related to each other in close family ties (if itwasnt the same person at the time).
Although Jagiellonian dynasty was not hereditary and in theory each member of dynasty had to be elected, in reality every time when the father died, his son was elected as new king.
After the last Jagiellonian dynasty member died out, the kings of Poland were elected by the Polish nobles.
- Elzbieta-Bonifacja (born and died 1399)
Jagiello married again to Sophia Holczanska. Their children were:
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