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He was the fourth son of Emperor Daoguang. His mother was the concubine of the 2nd rank Quan (全貴妃), of the (Manchu) Niohuru clan, who was made empress in 1834, and is known posthumously as Empress Xiaoquan Cheng (孝全成皇后).
He died on August 22, 1861 at the Rehe Traveling Palace (熱河行宫), 230 km./140 miles northeast of Beijing, where the imperial court had fled in the wake of the Second Opium War. He was survived by his empress, who became Empress Dowager Ci'an (慈安太后), and by the concubine of the second rank Yi (懿貴妃), who became Empress Dowager Cixi (慈禧太后) and went on to rule China as its de facto leader for the next 47 years.
He was interred amidst the Eastern Qing Tombs (清東陵), 125 kilometers/75 miles east of Beijing, in the Dingling (定陵 - meaning "Tomb of quietude") mausoleum complex.
- Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864)
- Second Opium War (1856-1860)
- Treaties of Tianjin (1858)
- Beijing Convention (1860)
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