Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Xú Shòuhuī (徐壽輝, in Wade-Giles Hsü Shou-hui, ? - 1360) was a rebel leader in late the Yuan Dynasty in China and proclaimed himself emperor. He was also known as Xu Zhenyi (真一 or 真逸, in WG Hsü Chen-i).
Born in Luotian (羅田, now in Hubei), Xu was a cloth vendor by profession. In August 1351, he worked with others in Qízhōu (蘄州) to establish the rebel army of Red Turbans under the pretense of the Buddhist White Lotus Society . In the following months, they captured Qishui (蘄水) and made it the command centre of the Red Turbans and the capital of the newly declared Empire of Tianwan (天完), with himself as the emperor with the era name of Zhiping (治平).
The number of his supporters increased rapidly as he claimed to be a Milofo reincarnate (彌勒佛下生) who sought to "destroy the rich to benefit the poor" (摧富益貧). In 1352, he invaded more of Hebei, and moved on to take Jiangxi, Anhui, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Hunan.
After being temporarily defeated by the Mongol army, he fled to Huangmei Mountain (黃梅山). He returned in 1355 to invade once again and moved the capital to Hanyang.
After he was murdered by Chen Youliang, his former co-fighter, the Tianwan Empire collapsed.
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