Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Zürich IPA (in English often Zurich, which is also the standard French form of the name) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 364,558 in 2002; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. The city is Switzerland's main commercial centre and home to the country's largest airport. It is also home of the Cabaret Voltaire where the Dada movement began in 1916.
The origin of the name is most likely the Celtic word Turus, a corroborating reference to which was found on a tomb inscription dating from the Roman occupation in the second century AD. The Roman name for the town was Turicum and in the local dialect it is called Züri IPA [ˈtsyrɪ].
The city is situated where the river Limmat leaves Lake Zürich and is surrounded by wooded hills. The river Sihl meets with the Limmat at the end of Platzspitz, which borders the Swiss National Museum (Landesmuseum).
In Roman times, Turicum was a tax-collecting point for goods entering the imperial province of Raetia by river. The earliest record of the town's name is preserved on a tombstone found in the eighteenth century on Lindenhof, referring to the Roman castle as STA(tio) TUR(i)CEN(sis).
A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835 ("in castro Turicino iuxta fluvium Lindemaci"). Louis also founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard. He endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich, Uri, and the Albis forest, and granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority.
Zürich became reichsunmittelbar in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family. Emperor Frederick II promoted the abbess of the Fraumünster to the rank of a duchess in 1234. The abbess assigned the mayor, and she frequently delegated the minting of coins to citizens of the city. However, the political power of the convent slowly waned in the fourteenth century, beginning with the establishment of the Zunftordnung (guild laws) in 1336 by Rudolf Brun , who also became the first independent mayor, i.e. not assigned by the abbess.
Zürich joined the Swiss confederation (which at that point was a loose confederation of independent states) as the fifth member in 1351. Zürich was expelled from the confederation in 1440 due to a war with the other member states over the territory of Toggenburg (the Old Zürich War). Zürich was defeated in 1446, and re-admitted to the confederation in 1450.
- Grossmünster (great minster) (near Lake Zürich, in the old city), where Zwingli was pastor
- Fraumünster (our lady's minster) first church built before 874; the Romanesque choir dates from 1250-70; Marc Chagall stained glass choir windows; (on the opposite side of the Limmat)
- St. Peter (downstream from the Fraumünster, in the old city); with the largest clock face in Europe
- Lindenhof near St. Peter; site of the Roman and medieval castle. View over the river and old town.
- Guild houses along the river (downstream from the Grossmünster)
- Old town on both sides of the river
- Bahnhofstrasse, Zürich (shopping avenue) starting at main train station
- Landesmuseum (Swiss National Museum, directly opposite Zürich's main train station.)
- Art Museum (Kunsthaus Zürich )
- Zoological garden
- Lake Zürich, running from Zürich to Rapperswil and linking with the Obersee
- Üetliberg , at an altitude 813 metres above sea level, with Uetlibergturm TV-tower (not accessible for tourists)
Industry and commerce
UBS, Credit Suisse, and many private banks have their headquarters in Zürich, the commercial center of Switzerland. Zürich is the world's primary centre for offshore banking, mainly due to Swiss bank secrecy. The financial sector accounts for about one quarter of the city's economic activities. The Swiss Stock Exchange is also headquartered in Zürich (see also Swiss banking, Gnomes of Zurich).
Education and research
- FC Zürich Football Club ()
- Grasshopper-Club Football ()
- ZSC Lions Ice Hockey Club ()
- Challengers Baseball Club Zürich ()
- Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)
- International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF)
- Swimming in the lake, in the river or in several outdoor swimming pools (June-September)
Zürich is a hub for rail, road, and air traffic. It has several railway stations, including Zürich Main Station, Zürich Oerlikon , Zürich Stadelhofen, and Zürich Altstetten. The Cisalpino, InterCity Express, and even the TGV high-speed trains stop in Zürich.
Within Zürich and throughout the canton of Zürich, the ZVV network of public transport has traffic density rating among the highest worldwide.
Born or died in Zürich
- Huldrych Zwingli (1484 - 1531), reformer
- Conrad Gessner (1516 - 1565), born and died in Zürich
- Johann Jakob Scheuchzer (1672 - 1733), scholar, born in Zürich
- Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741 - 1801), poet and physiognomist, born in Zürich
- Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746 - 1827), educational reformer, born in Zürich
- Gottfried Keller (1819 - 1890), poet, born and died in Zürich
- Conrad Ferdinand Meyer (1825 - 1898), poet, born in Zürich
- Johanna Spyri (1827 - 1901), author of Heidi, died in Zürich
- Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia (1853) - (1920) Duchess of Edinburgh, died in Zürich
- Wilhelm Filchner (1877 - 1957), explorer, died in Zürich
- James Joyce (1882 - 1941), Irish novelist, died in Zürich (buried at Fluntern cemetery in Zürich)
- Felix Bloch (1905 - 1983), physicist, born in Zürich
- Elias Canetti (1905 - 1994), novelist, died in Zürich
- Max Frisch (1911 - 1991), novelist, born and died in Zürich
- Bruno Ganz (*1941), actor, born in Zürich
- Martin Suter (*1948), author, born in Zürich
- Lucinda Ruh (*1979), figure skater, born in Zürich
- Richard Wagner (1849–1861)
- Albert Einstein (1896–1900, 1909–1911, 1912–1914)
- Lenin (1917)
- Thomas Mann (1933–1942)
- Kurt Tucholsky (1932–1933)
- Savoy Baur en Ville ()
- Baur au Lac ()
- Dolder ()
- Alden Splügenschloss ()
- Eden au Lac ()
- Park Hyatt Zürich ()
- Widder ()
- Marriott ()
- Ascot ()
See also Zürich Tourism
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