Science Project Details:

Effect of temperature on solubility

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Difficulty: Advanced 7
Cost ($): 10
Time required: < 1 day
1 hour to prepare, 2 hours for the experiment
Availability of materials: Readily available
Easily found
Required Skills: None
Safety concerns:

Basic safety requirements

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Abstract

This experiment was performed to find out how temperature affects the solubility of various substances in water. The tests were done using salt, sugar and sodium bicarbonate at different temperatures.

Hypothesis

As the temperature of the water increases, the amount of substance dissolved in the water also increases. This should be true for all types of substances.

Scientific Terms

Solubility, dissolve, substance, solvent, saturation, crystal

Background

Solubility

Solubility refers to the ability of a given volume of solvent to dissolve a substance. It is normally expressed as the amount (in grams) of substance that can be dissolved in 100ml of a given solvent at room temperature (20 °C). Most substances will become more soluble when the temperature of the solution is increased.

Some factors that affect the solubility of a substance are temperature, air pressure and the type of solvent used. The solubility of different substances will not be the same for a given solvent. For example, some substances can dissolve very easily in water whereas others may not. .

Saturation is reached when the substance cannot be dissolved in the solvent any longer. The remaining substance can only be dissolved by adding more solvent or increasing the temperature of the solvent. When the temperature of such a saturated solvent is gradually reduced, crystals will start to form inside the solvent.