All people need sleep. Children need more sleep than adults do and that is why they take a rest. This usually takes place in the afternoon. This experiment is to decide which type of music childcare children will have a more restful sleep with, classical or soft rock. The results of this experiment will help parents and childcare centers help their children have a more restful sleep.
According to the Oxford American Dictionary, sleep is " 1 The natural recurring condition of rest in animals, in which there is unconsciousness with the nervous system inactive and muscles relaxed. 2 A spell of this a long sleep. 3 The inert condition of hibernating animals."
What Sleep Does for Your Body
People need sleep so they can function properly. Sleep helps restore energy to the hard working parts of your body, such as the brain, and the nervous system. Both slow wave sleep and dreaming sleep are required to maintain the right amount of energy. The slow wave type of sleep helps build protein and restores energy to the brain and the nervous system, which in return affects the muscles, glands and other parts of the body. The dreaming part of sleep is important to the mental activities such as learning and reasoning.
An illness may cause a person to weaken and sleep more than normal. The reason for the extra sleep is to conserve more energy and resources. Some scientists believe very strongly that sleep helps the body recover from an illness in a quicker time period.
A survey on sleep and health has been taken by the American Cancer Society. The results from this survey was that people who acquired seven to eight hours of sleep were healthier than those who obtained less or more sleep than that amount.
Some neurons inside the brain stem and midbrain are active only during REM sleep and some are not. The combined effects of the "sleep-active and sleep inactive" neurons is why people only twitch and make small movements instead of acting out their dreams. People that do move about and act out their dreams, often hurting themselves, have out of order inactive and active REM systems.
Time Periods of Sleep
Humans are known to sleep mostly at night, although it depends on your age. For example newborns can sleep up to 16 hours a day, but never for very long periods of time. A two-year-old usually sleeps from 9 to 12 hours with the periods of sleep becoming longer. As an adult, 6 to 7 hours of sleep are needed to revitalize your body. As you grow older and mature, your sleeping periods form into one long time frame instead of short frequent periods. When you get to the elderly stage, you return to the pattern of early childhood sleep consisting of a couple of naps and little sleep at night.
REM and NREM Sleep
The two types of sleep are REM and NREM. REM stands for rapid eye movement and NREM stands for non-rapid eye movement. REM sleep is measured by the body movement and twitching. NREM sleep has four stages, which are measured with an EEG. The first stage of NREM is the lightest and the fourth stage is the heaviest. As you’re sleeping you progress slowly from stage zero to four and then back down to stage zero. After stage zero you go to REM sleep. This cycle is repeated throughout the night. The amount of time spent in REM sleep gets longer throughout the night, averaging from about 20-22 percent of the night.
The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Your Health
Sleep is what you are doing when you are not awake. It is an "event" that repeats itself throughout your life. Sleep is necessary so your body can properly function.
When people are deprived of sleep, they usually become quick tempered and lose energy, it usually means they are deprived of sleep. After just two days without sleep, long periods of concentration can be difficult. If greatly desired, a person can perform well for short periods of time but they are easily distracted. The person "deprived of sleep" doses off at times and may completely fall asleep unless kept constantly active. Thinking, seeing, and hearing clearly become troublesome if you go without sleep for three days. Sometimes people get to the point where they hallucinate and confuse their dreams with reality. They also may loose concentration in the middle of a sentence. Going without sleep for 11 days has been the record, but aside from what has been already mentioned, they also become fearful and suspicious. For example, "they might think that a doctor is an undertaker who has come to bury them or that their food has been poisoned." The effect of sleep deprivation for any amount of time does not have any long-term damage. Sleep recovery following sleep deprivation shows an increase of both REM and stage four NREM sleep.
According to the American Dictionary, music is " 1 The art of arranging sounds of voice(s) or instrument(s) or both in a pleasing sequence or combination. 2 The sound(s) or combination(s) produced, a written or printed score for this. 3 Any pleasant sound or series of sounds, such as bird song".
The History of Rock and Roll
The first rock and roll song was produced in the early evening of March 5, 1951, when five musicians, who were known for their Blues songs, recorded something a little different. A new type of song, which had a loud beat and seemed alive, became popular.
Over the years numerous songs have been produced in the rock and roll style. In 1955 rock and roll really made an impact on the world because it was a type of music that both black and white listeners could enjoy. However, because of prejudice issues, the players had a tough time getting a hit song. This was mostly due to the fact that the majority of the players were black and the majority of the listeners were white. By 1955 rock and roll had obviously found its listeners. The task now was to find more people who could actually play it.
Paul McCartney and John Lennon met in Liver Pool, England on July 6, 1957. They became quick friends and eventually made a pact that together they would become songwriters. They joined a local group and met George Harrison. The next year the trio formed a group of their own called The Silver Beetles adding Stu Sucliffe on bass and drummer Pete Best. Ringo Starr eventually became the group’s official drummer. The group changed their name, and the spelling of Beetles, from The Silver Beetles to The Beatles, and began recording their songs. The Beatles became famous in England first and then in America after performing on the Ed Sullivan show. Soon after, The Beatles became the frenzy in both England and America, ruling the number one slot for 4 years.
In 1968 The Beatles first began to think of breaking up. They had all become famous individually and wanted to go separate ways. On December 31, 1970 Paul filed a suit in England to officially break up the group. All of the members, now solo, produced hit songs and albums. In 1980 a demented fan in New York shot John. Some 15 years later the remaining Beatles got back together and produced some amazing music. According to Ringo " We were four guys who really loved each other."
History of Classical Music
Before 1600 AD music was mostly religious chants written for voices which sang in unison or parallel. During 1600 AD the first forms of non-religious music evolved. During this period there was much "religious upheaval." Some composers went against the tradition of the time and overcame all of the old rules of music. These composers produced harmonies that conflicted and made impure sounds. They brought out to the world suspensions, which are musical notes that are "held over from opposing keys." Unison, convention writing, and parallel were never used. This was the beginning of the Baroque period (1600-1750).
Music that was precise with a controlled quality, making the music easy to remember, was called Baroque music. Some of the dance styles, for example the march, minuet, and gigue were some of the types of music. Also, Baroque had themes that were melodic, meaning that the theme repeated in altered voices.
The Classical period (1750-1820) was a time when composers took more freedom. The music went from the "two voice style of the Baroque to a solo line with cords underneath." The music made at this time was still simple. It was not only emotional, it sometimes sounded delicate and courteous.
It was Beethoven who "led the way" into the Romantic period (1820-900). He began to write very sensitive music as he was going deaf. His music also lacked ridged structure. This became a common trait in all of the music produced during that time.
The next period to take place was the Impressionistic period in which the music was composed to perform images in ones mind. The composers marked all of their music Rubato, which means, "free flowing." They also used "colorful harmonies and scales" to create these scenes. This period of music did not last very long and soon the Contemporary period (1900-present) began.
The rule in Contemporary music is anything goes. The established form, harmony, and structure were almost forgotten in writing music, and are only left for history books. The composers use all types of music in their pieces and create all types of "musical idioms."
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Mozart was born January 27, 1756 in Salzburg, Austria. His father, Lepold Mozart was concertmaster for the Archbishop of Salzburg, taught him. Mozart was very skilled at playing the clavier, violin, and the organ at age six. He could also sight read and improvise (playing music off the top of his head) extremely well. At the age of six, he also composed five short piano pieces. Mozart’s father took him on a tour throughout Europe. In 1763 Mozart composed sonatas to be played on the violin and harpsichord. He then composed a symphony in 1768. In 1769, he was assigned the position of the Concertmaster to the Archbishop of Salzburg. Mozart wrote an opera at the age of 14 that was produced under his direction. This made his reputation, which was already quite good, exceptional. When Mozart was 21 the courts of Europe rejected him and his music. Aloysa Weber was the girl that he fell in love with but she did not want to marry him. This two-year period was the hardest in Mozart’s life because of his mother’s death, the rejection from Aloysa, and the neglect from the aristocrats. Mozart ended up marrying Constanze Webber (Aloysa Webber’s sister) in 1782. Mozart died in Vienna in the year 1791 on December 5th.
Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound. It is made by how fast or slow the vibrations of sound waves occur. When the pitch of something is high it means that the sound waves are fast. The same thing for a low pitch with the exception of the waves are slow. There are tones that produce, in a different way, the same sound in changed pitches. Those sounds are what we call an octave apart. These sounds have different pitches but have the same note, name, and sound. This is all represented in a chromatic scale.
Much of the music in the world uses the pentatonic scale, which is a scale using only five sentences. The pentatonic scale, the one that is most well known, is made up of the black keys on the modern keyboard. The pentagon scale is not the only scale in the world. Some other scales are the chromatic scale, B flat scale and a whole lot more.
All people need sleep so they can function properly. Sleep helps restore energy to the hard working parts of your body, such as the brain, and the nervous system. The combined effects of the "sleep-active and sleep inactive" neurons is why people only twitch and make small movements instead of acting out their dreams. When people become quick tempered and lose energy, it usually means they are deprived of sleep. A softer music such as classical, according to my data, helps people rest more efficiently.
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Coren, Stanley, Sleep Thieves, New York, NY, THE FREE PRESS, 1996