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Title: The Effect Of Different Liquids On Teeth Student Researcher: Katie Simco School Address: Fox Lane Middle School Bedford, NY 10506 Grade: 6 Teacher: Dr. Sears I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: I want to find out what effect common liquids that we drink have on human teeth. My hypothesis states that tooth decay is caused by the reaction of certain liquids mixed with the bacteria found in saliva over a period of time. II. Methodology: First I wrote my statement of purpose and hypothesis. I discussed dental decay and teeth with my mom (she's a Dental Hygienist). She brought home some teeth pulled from patients in her office that she carefully cleaned in a autoclave. We selected the best teeth by checking for clean, healthy and solid teeth. We used 16 teeth, 8 test tubes, and 4 liquids for this experiment. We wrote down the color and weight of each tooth on my data collection sheet. We placed 2 teeth in each of the 8 test tubes. We selected the following liquids: lemon juice, Ginger Ale, milk, and blueberry juice. We put 4 cc's of each liquids in 2 test tubes. In every other test tube, we mixed the liquid with 4 cc's saliva. There were eight test tubes in all. We kept all the test tubes at room temperature. We watched the teeth for 10 days. After the 10 days we removed the teeth from the test tubes and looked at the color and wrote down any changes. We inspected the teeth with a dental instrument called an explorer. I learned that healthy teeth tissue is not penetrated by the point of the instrument. When the tooth breaks down due to decay the instrument penetrates into the tooth. A good analogy is like trying to stick a pin into a jaw breaker or trying the same on a piece of caramel. We weighed the teeth and wrote that information down as well. Then we wrote down and compared the data from the start of the experiment to the data collected at the end of the experiment. III. Analysis of Data: Project note: I weighed the teeth and found that there was no measurable difference in the weight of the teeth before and after the experiment. (I used a scale with grams as a unit of measure in 1/10th increments.) Based on the observations I made, I found the following: 1.) The blueberry juice had the most effect in both stain and decay. A large visible cavity was detected on the tooth in blueberry juice mixed with saliva. 2.) The milk was next with decay and deposits called tarter and plaque and brown staining in both milk and milk mixed with saliva. 3.) Lemon Juice was next with deposits called tarter and plaque as well as whitening of the enamel. 4.) Ginger Ale was last with the least effect. Straight Ginger Ale had little or no effect. Ginger Ale mixed with saliva had deposits called plaque with a cavity found by probing with the explorer. IV. Summary and Conclusion: Leaving teeth in icky stuff without brushing them makes for icky teeth. I was able to decay teeth and stain them in a lab environment. If people eat and drink and leave the deposits in their mouths, decay and staining will happen. I accepted my hypothesis because in my experiment, there seemed to be more decay present and more plaque build-up on the teeth in the liquids mixed with saliva. V. Application: My project tells me that you should brush your teeth regularly and go to the dentist for regular check-ups. You shouldn't leave food, candy, or sugar stuck on your teeth for any length of time. Title: The Effect of Different Liquids On Plant Growth Student Researcher: Ben Vander Wal School Address: Hillside Middle School 1941 Alamo Kalamazoo, MI 49007 Grade: 7th Teacher: Barbara A. Minar I. Statement of Purpose & Hypothesis I wanted to find out how tall five daisy seeds would grow if I watered each with a different liquid (water, milk, Kool-Aid, ammonia, and Windex). My hypothesis stated that the plant watered with water would grow tallest. II. Methodology First, I planted five seeds into five identical pots. Every day, from then on, I watered each plant with one tablespoon of their designated liquid. After each day, I recorded how tall each plant grew. The materials I used were: five clay pots, top soil, daisy seeds, water, ammonia, Windex, milk, Kool-Aid, a ruler, timer, and a tablespoon. III. Analysis of Data There was only one seed that grew. The seed watered with water grew 39 mm in thirty days. All the other plants failed to grow. IV. Summary & Conclusion In this experiment, I compared plants watered with different liquids. I thought many seeds would grow, but only the seed watered with water grew. The seeds given ammonia, Windex, milk and Kool-Aid did not grow at all. Therefore, I accepted my hypothesis which stated that the plant watered with water would grow tallest. V. Application I learned that water is the best liquid to give to a daisy seed. KooL-Aid, milk, ammonia, and Windex do not help plants grow. If I were to do this experiment differently, I would try watering the seeds with some other liquids. Also I would grow the plants for a longer time. Title: Removal of Bacteria by Two Soaps Student Researcher: Anna Winskill School Address: Fox Lane Middle School Bedford, NY 10506 Grade: 8 Teacher: Ms Russo I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: I wanted to find out which of the two liquid soaps, Softsoap Antibacterial and Ivory, would remove the most bacteria from my hands. My hypothesis stated that the antibacterial soap would remove the bacteria the best. II. Methodology: From a previous experiment (found on page 6 of my research notebook), I decided to use my "q-tip method" to test my hands for bacteria. First, I took a control sample by taking a sterile q-tip, wetting it with water, and then wiping it on an agar filled petri-dish. Then I went outside to get my hands dirty. I did this to get an ample amount of bacteria on my hands. Before washing my hands with the two different soaps, I took a sample from both my left and right hand with a wet q-tip which I then spread on a petri-dish. I needed to wash one hand per soap, so while washing the first one I put a latex glove on the other. With a controlled amount of soap, water, and a set washing manner, I washed a hand, wet a q-tip, and took a sample, and spread it on the petri-dish. After my first hand was done, I took off the glove on my other (still dirty) hand and repeated the above process. I took five samples (from my five different fingers) from each hand. I conducted this whole procedure twice. III. Analysis of Data: From the data that I collected, I have found that the Ivory soap removed more bacteria than the Softsoap. I calculated the percentages of the remaining bacteria by taking the average number of colonies remaining after using the soap (either the Softsoap or the Ivory), and dividing them by the average number of the colonies present before using the soap. I did this for each soap in each experiment. I found that the percentage of bacteria remaining for the Ivory soap was 8% for experiment A and 7% for experiment B. The Softsoap, however, had 12% of the bacteria remaining in both experiments. These percentages indicate that the Ivory soap removed more bacteria, in both trials, than the Softsoap. IV. Summary and Conclusion: I found out that the Ivory removed more bacteria, but the key word is removed. Antibacterial soaps kill bacteria. I believe that the Ivory washed away more bacteria into the water, but the Antibacterial actually killed the bacteria. There are many ways in which I can improve this experiment. For instance, I didn't keep excellent track of how I was washing my hands. Based on the results of this experiment, I recommend Ivory soap for eliminating bacteria. This research needs to be repeated. V. Application: I can make people aware of my findings and they might decide to switch to Ivory. Other soaps may be better than Ivory at removing bacteria (and these should also be tested). I might even send my results to Softsoap and see how my data compares with the company's. For my next experiment, I might take the Softsoap and wash my hands for different time intervals. Maybe antibacterial soaps kill more bacteria when you wash with them for a bit longer. Title: What Kind Of Light Makes A Plant Grow Faster, Natural or Artificial? Student Researcher: Howard M. Robinson, II School Address: Hillside Middle School 1941 Alamo Avenue Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007 Grade: Seventh Teacher: Barbara A. Minar I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: I wanted to know the effect of natural and artificial light on plant growth. My hypothesis stated that a plant grown under natural light would grow taller than one grown under artificial light. II. Methodology: I needed a lamp, growing light bulb, potting soil, flower pots, collard green seeds, water, and measuring cup (1/4 cup). I planted the seeds and watered the plants with 1/4 cup of water every two days. I turned on the grow lamp when the sun rose and turned it off when the sun set. This plant growing under artificial light was in a room that is normally dark. Every week I checked the room temperature and measured the plants' height. III. Analysis of Data: As I continued with my experiment, I found that natural light helps plants grow taller than artificial light. The average height of the plants under natural light was 5.54 centimeters. The average height of the plants under artificial light was 4.68 centimeters. IV. Summary and Conclusion: The type of light that made a plant grow taller was natural light instead of artificial light. I accepted my hypothesis which stated that the plant grown under natural light would grow taller than one grown under artificial light. I had no problems as I conducted my experiment. More seeds germinated under natural light than artificial light (30 plants exposed to the natural light and 8 plants exposed to artificial light). V. Application: What I've learned applies to people outside the classroom. For instance, if a greenhouse farmer or crop farmer who lived in a climate where it was cold in the winter wanted to start growing plants early, the farmers could grow them inside instead of outside. The farmers would need to know what kind of light helps plants grow faster, natural or artificial. Title: Which Brand Of Paper Towels Is Most Absorbent? Student Researcher: Christopher Harris School Address: Hillside Middle School 1941 Alamo Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007 Grade: Seventh Teacher: Barbara A. Minar I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: In my experiment, I wanted to know which paper towel would absorb the most liquid. The brands I tested were: Sparkle Paper Towels, Spartan Store Brand Paper Towels, and a generic brand paper towel. My hypothesis stated that the Sparkle paper towels will absorb the most liquid because it costs more and is a better known brand name. II. Methodology To test my hypothesis, I used a standard liquid measuring cup and a sample of each of the paper towels. First, I took one equal size sheet of each paper towel and eight ounces of tap water. Then, starting with the brand name paper towel, I immersed one sheet into the measuring cup of water for 10 seconds. This was done for the store and generic brands as well. Next, I removed the paper towels from the measuring cup without wringing them out. The amount of water remaining in the measuring cup was then subtracted from the original eight ounces of water to determine the amount of absorption. Each result was recorded on graph paper. Then I repeated the above steps for 3 more trials. III. Analysis of Data The Spartan paper towels and the generic paper towels each absorbed at one ounce of the water in each trial. The Sparkle paper towels did not absorb enough water in each of the trials to measure. IV. Summary and Conclusion In conclusion, I accepted my hypothesis which stated that the Sparkle paper towels will absorb the most liquid because it costs more and is a better known brand name. The Spartan brand and generic brand were the more absorbent paper towels. The Sparkle brand paper towels were not absorbent at all. These findings indicate that the better known product may not be the best product. V. Application This information is great for consumers who buy products based upon name recognition or price. This is one of those situations where the highest priced item is not the best product. This information could really help you save money. Title: Which Cheese Molds Faster? Student Researcher: Mindy J. Sincler School Address: Hillside Middle School 1941 Alamo Kalamazoo, MI 49007 Grade: Seventh Teacher: Barbara A. Minar I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: For my experiment, I wanted to know which cheese will mold the fastest. My hypothesis stated that if I put mozzarella and cheddar cheese in a warm, dark, damp place, then the mozzarella cheese would mold faster than the cheddar. II. Methodology: In my experiment, I used one chunk of each type of cheese, two bowls, two pieces of plastic wrap, and one ruler. Using those materials, my procedure was to first put one chunk of cheddar cheese in one bowl, and one of Mozzarella cheese in the other. Next, I covered each bowl with plastic wrap and placed them both in a warm, dark, damp place which was in my room by a heater. I left the bowls in the same spot twenty-four hours a day and checked to see how much mold was growing every twenty- four hours. III. Analysis of Data: It took three days for the mozzarella cheese to start growing mold. It grew about .75 square millimeters each day. By the sixth day, it had grown about two and a fourth square millimeters of mold. It took five days for the cheddar cheese to begin to mold. By the sixth day, the cheddar cheese had only grown one square millimeter of mold. IV. Summary and Conclusion: It took the mozzarella cheese the shortest time to mold. I accepted my hypothesis which stated that mozzarella cheese would mold faster than the cheddar. I also noticed that the cheeses stayed damp throughout the process. V. Application: My experiment may help the outside world because, if someone likes cheese and also likes camping, then they need to know what cheese to bring camping with them. My experience showed that it is better to take cheddar cheese camping with you and keep it in a cool, light, dry place. Title: What Color Candle Burns The Fastest? Student Researcher: Lindsay De Leeuw School Address: Hillside Middle School 1941 Alamo Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007 Grade: Seventh Teacher: Barbara A. Minar I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: My topic was about burning candles. I wanted to find out what color candle would burn the fastest. My hypothesis stated that, if I burned five candles, one red, one white, one yellow, one purple, and one blue, then the white one would burn the fastest. II. Methodology I tested my hypothesis by burning five candles. The materials that I used were a ruler, stop watch, black maker, candles, candle holders, and matches. The variables that were kept the same were the candle's brand, when we started to burn them, the length and width of the candle, room temperature, and distance between the candles. The only thing that was different was that the candles were different colors. To carry out my project I first set up the candles four inches apart. Then I marked a line one inch down form the wick on each candle. Then I lit them all at once. Next, I started timing how long it took each to burn. I stopped timing when the mark on each candle was gone. Finally, I recorded my data. III. Analysis of Data: The white candle didn't burn the fastest. The fastest burning candle was the yellow one which took twenty-two minutes and twenty seconds, then red which took twenty- four minutes and thirty seconds, then blue which took twenty-five minutes and eleven seconds, then the white candle which took twenty-five minutes and twenty seconds, and then the purple one which took twenty-six minutes and one second. IV. Summary and Conclusion: I found out that the fastest burning candle was the yellow one. Therefore, I reject my hypothesis which stated that the white one would burn the fastest. If I could do this experiment again I would make a few changes. I would make the mark on the candle two inches down instead of one inch down. I would also try other brands and colors of candles. V. Application: I learned that, if I ever wanted candles that burn fast, then I should get light colored candles because they burn the fastest. Color really has an effect on burning candles. Title: The Effect Of Color On The Speed Of Dyeing Flowers Student Researcher: Terri Bell School Address: Hillside Middle School 1941 Alamo Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007 Grade: Seventh Teacher: Barbara A. Minar I. Statement of purpose and hypothesis: I wondered how fast different food colorings would be absorbed? My hypothesis stated that, if I put three flowers in dye (red, blue, and yellow), then the yellow dye will be absorbed the fastest. II. Methodology: The material I used were: three white carnations, three glass jars, one for each dye color, and 100 ml of water for each glass jar. I tested my hypothesis by putting three flowers in three separate jars which contain red, blue, and yellow dyes. I kept track of how long it took for the color to show up in the petals of the white carnations. First, I put each white carnation in a glass jar with 100 ml of water. Then put 10 drops of red dye, blue dye in one jar, 10 drops of yellow dye into the next jar, and 10 drops of blue dye in the last jar. Everyday I checked on each flower. III. Analysis of Data: I started my experiment at 12:00. For the first three hours, the flowers stayed all white. The flower in the blue dye started to change around the edges at 4:20, the flower in the yellow dye changed at 4:30, and then the flower in the red dye changed at 5:30. IV. Summary and Conclusion: The blue dye was absorbed the fastest. Therefore, I reject my hypothesis which stated that the yellow dye will be absorbed the fastest. The yellow dye was absorbed in the second fastest time. V. Application: This experiment is helpful because one can now know that when the dye enters the flower from the stem it will go up the xylen and change the color of the flower petals. Blue dye appears to do the fastest. Title: Which Milk Spoils Fastest? Student Researcher: Cheslea Cunliffe School Address: Hillside Middle School 1941 Alamo Kalamazoo, MI 49007 Grade: Seventh Teacher: Barbara A. Minar I. Purpose and Hypothesis. I wanted to find out which milk would spoil fastest if left out; skim, 2%, whole, or heavy cream. My hypothesis stated that heavy cream would spoil the fastest because it contains the most fat and fat doesn't stay fresh for very long. II. Methodology. When I performed my experiment I took careful measurements to make sure everything was accurate. Also, the procedures I went through when performing my experiment were very carefully planned. First, I got some skim milk, 2% milk, whole milk, and heavy cream milk. Then I put 2 oz of each into four separate baby food jars. I left the jars out with the tops on. I observed and rated the condition of the milk in the jars once every 8 hours on a scale of 1-10 (1 being fresh, 10 being spoiled). After all the milks curdled and the data was recorded, I threw away the milk. III. Analysis of Data. After the milk spoiled and all the data was recorded. I found that the skim milk was the first to smell bad, but the last to completely curdle. The 2% was the last to smell bad and the third to curdle. The whole milk was third to spoil and the second to curdle. Surprisingly, the heavy cream was the last to smell bad; however, it was the first to curdle completely. IV. Summary and Conclusion. I rejected my hypothesis which stated that heavy cream would spoil the fastest. The heavy cream milk was the last to smell bad. The skim milk was the first to begin to smell bad. V. Application. My findings could be useful in the "real world" in case anyone ever leaves their milk out. Often times, little children leave their bottles out or leave their milk sitting on the table because they didn't want to drink it. If parents knows when their child's milk was first put out, then they could potentially save their child's life or at least prevent them from getting sick due to food poisoning. © 1997 John I. Swang, Ph.D.