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Soil Temperature Vs. Seed Sprouting

Researched by Michael H.
1999-2000

 



 

 

 PURPOSE
 

The purpose of this experiment was to see in which soil temperature (32°c, 18°c or 5°c) more seeds will sprout.

I became interested in this idea when I was reading through a science book on topics.

The information gained from this experiment could be used to help farmers or people who grow plants to determine if soil temperature affects the growth of plants. 


HYPOTHESIS

My hypothesis is that the plant with the soil temperature normal will sprout faster then the plant with the soil temperature higher and lower. 

I base my hypothesis on Encarta 2000, which says extreme cold, or heat will make the plant not be able to germinate.  I also based it on my mom as a plant grower she said that when she put plants next to a heater they needed more water more often then the other plants in the house and if the plant did not have the extra water the would start to die.

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EXPERIMENT DESIGN

The constants in this study were: 
The same kind of plant. 
The same sizes and shape of the pots. 
 The same amount of dirt in each pot. 
The same amount of water given to each plant. 
The same amount of water given to each plant every two days. 
The same amount of sunlight given to each plant. 
The same amount of seeds.

The manipulated variable was the temperature of the soil.

The responding variable was which plant sprouts first.

To measure the responding variable I counted each seed that sprouted though the soil. 

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MATERIALS
 
QUANTITY  ITEM DESCRIPTION
Flower Pots
Seeds
Bag of Potting Soil
 Heating  Source
4 Tlbs. of Water to each plant every two days
Pair of Scissors
Thermometer


   PROCEDURES

1. Gather Materials.
2. Take Scissors and cut open bag of potting soil.
3. Put 3/4 cup of potting soil in pots
4. Put seeds in pot.
5. Put 1/4cup of potting soil over seeds
6. Label one pot A.
7. Label one pot B.
8. Label one pot C.
9. Label one pot D.
10. Label one pot E
11. Label one pot F
12. Place pot A over heating source.
13. Place pot B over heating source.
14. Place pot C over no heating source.
15. Place pot D over no heating source.
16. Place pot E in cold source
17. Place pot F on cold source.
18. Check plant growth A-F every morning at 6:45 a.m. or around there.
19. Check plant growth A-F every night at 6:45 p.m. or around there and take temperature.
20. Water plants every two days.
21. When plants sprout record data.
22.  Experimentation’s done.

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RESULTS

The original purpose of this experiment was to see in which soil temperature (32°c, 18°c or 5°c) more seeds will sprout.
 

The results of the experiment were that A and B sprouted faster then the other four by one day.

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CONCLUSION

My hypothesis was that the plant with the soil temperature normal would sprout faster then the plant with the soil temperature higher and lower. 

The results indicate that this hypothesis should be rejected.   Do to seeds A & B sprouting faster then my hypothesis which was plants C and D.

Because of the results of this experiment, I wonder if more heat was to be added to plant A and B if they would still sprout faster then the others.

If I were to conduct this project again I would have used many more plants than just two in each category.  Also I would have waited tell the plant reach a growth of five inches.  So I could see if some plants died off after sprouting.

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RESEARCH REPORT

INTRODUCTION
 Have you ever put a plant by heater and the plant died or you put a plant in the garage in winter and it never sprouted?  Have you ever wondered which temperature a plant grows best in?
 This experiment is to find out in which plants grow best.
 This report contains information on Seed Germination, Seed Dormancy, Root (botany) and Stems and Leaves.

Seed Germination

Germination dose not take place unless the seed is in a good environment the main keys for growing a plant are adequate water and oxygen and also sunlight.   Different kinds of plant germinate at different temperatures. Some plants require more sunlight to germinate then others.  During germination, water diffuses though the seed coats into the embryo, which has been almost completely dry during the period of dormancy.  With the absorption of oxygen by the seed, energy is made available for growth. From the time of germination until the plant is completely independent of food stored in the seed, the plant is known as a seedling.

Seed Dormancy

Seed Dormancy is when a seed has fallen form the parent plant before they are able to germinate.  Lack of viability of seed is often confused with seed dormancy.  Many seeds require a so-called resting period after the have fallen from there parent plant.  In some plants, chemical changes take place during the resting period that make the seed ready for germination.  Still other seeds have extremely tough seed coats that must soften or decay before water and oxygen can enter the seed to take part in the growth of the embryo, or before the growing embryo is capable of bursting through the seed coat.

Root (botany)

The first root of the plant, known as the radicle, elongates during germination of the seed and forms the primary root. Roots that branch from the primary root are called secondary roots. In many plants the primary root is known as a taproot because it is much larger than secondary roots and penetrates deeper into the soil. Some plants having taproots cannot be transplanted easily, for breaking the taproot may result in the loss of most of the root system and cause the death of the plant.

Stems and Leaves

 Stems usually are above ground, grow upward, and bear leaves, which are attached in a regular pattern at nodes along the stem.  The portions of the stem between nodes are called internodes.  Growing plants give rise to new leaves, which surround and protect the stem tip, before they expand.  Stems are more variable in external appearance and internal structure than roots, but they also consist of three tissue systems and have several features in common.
 Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organs of most plants.  They usually are flattened blades that consist, internally, mostly of parenchyma tissue called the mesophyll, which is made up of loosely arranged cells with spaces between them.  The spaces are filled with air, from which the cells absorb carbon dioxide and into they expel oxygen.  The leaf blade is connected to the stem though a narrowed portion called the petiole, or stalk, which consists mostly of vascular tissue.

SUMMARY

This report explained about seed germination.  The term seed germination is applied to the resumption of the growth of the seed embryo after the period of dormancy.  This report also talks about seed dormancy, which is when a seed has fallen form the parent plant before they are able to germinate.  This report also talks about root (botany).  Which tells about the roots of the plants. This report also talks about stems and leaves. Stems are usually above ground, grow upward and bear leaves. Leaves are primary photosynthetic organs of most plants.
 
 

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Germination", Encarta 1998. CD-ROM. 1998
"Seed Germination", Encarta 1999. CD-ROM. 1999
"Germination", Encarta 2000. CD-ROM. 2000
"Root (Botany)", Encarta 2000. CD-ROM. 2000
"Stems", Encarta 2000. CD-ROM. 2000
"Leaves", Encarta 2000. CD-ROM. 2000
Keating Richard C., "Germination", The World Book Encyclopedia. 1998, 173

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