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The Effect of Mass on an Arrow's Penetrating Power 

Researched by Jorden 
1999-2000 



  • About the Author


PURPOSE

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of arrow mass on its penetrating distance.

I became interested in this idea because I find a bow and arrow fun to use, but I don’t know much about the science behind them, other than how to shoot accurately. 

The information gained from this experiment was that a hunting company could make different weight arrows for different competitions or hunting different game so an animal would be killed immediately instead of suffering. 



HYPOTHESIS

My hypothesis is that a more massive arrow will penetrate further into the target.

I base this hypothesis on my past knowledge of blowguns and bow and arrows, as well as my reading in books and encyclopedias. 



EXPERIMENT DESIGN

The constants in this study were: 
The pullback of the bow 
The distance from bow to the target 
The type of material that the target is made of 
The arrowhead design and weight 
The length of the arrow shaft 
The fletching of the arrow

The manipulated variable was the mass of the arrow effecting its penetrating power.

The responding variable was which mass would produce greatest penetration into the target.

 I’m going to measure the responding variable by, when the arrow is in the target mark a line on the arrow were it comes out of the target. Then pull the arrow out of the target and measure from the point of the arrow to the line to find the amount of penetration.  



MATERIALS 
 
QUANTITY ITEM DESCRIPTION
1 Bow
1 Arrows
5 65 Gram Arrow Tips
5 85 Gram Arrow Tips
5 100 Gram Arrow Tips
5 125 Gram Arrow Tips
1 1 1/2 Foot Thick Cardboard Archery Target
1 Marker
1 Notepad
1 Supporter For Target
1 Archery Stand



PROCEDURES

1. Get out all of your materials and go outside.  
2. Be at least 100 yards away from any house or objects that are valuable.  It is best if you cannot see houses. 
3. Set up a target 1 - 2 feet thick of high quality cardboard. 
4. Measure 50 feet from the front of the target and mark a line where you stop. 
5. Set the bow and arrows down behind the line and remeasure the distance from the target. 
6. Then pick up the bow and lighter arrow. 
7. Put the string on the bow in the slot on the back of the arrow. 
8. Set the shaft of the arrow on the arrow rest. 
9. Point the bow and arrow into the air and pull the string back to your chin. 
10. Aim at the target then release the string and arrow. 
11. Set the bow down and get the marker and ruler. 
12. Walk up to the target and mark a line on the arrow along the target. 
13. Pull the arrow out and measure from the tip to the mark and record the information. 
14. Repeat steps 1 ? 12 with the heavier arrow. 
15. Repeat steps 1 ? 13 5 times.  



 RESULTS

The original purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of arrow mass on its penetrating distance. 

The results of the experiment were that the 125-gram arrows penetrated further into the target. It penetrated 142.7 mm on average.  

See the table and graph below.

 



CONCLUSION

My hypothesis was a more massive arrow would penetrate further into the target. 

The results indicate that this hypothesis should be accepted. 

Because of the results of this experiment, I wonder if deer hunters use heavier or lighter arrows? Or if it effects accuracy of the arrow? 

If I were to conduct this project again I would use different arrow masses than previously used. I would also see if the weight effected the accuracy. 



RESEARCH REPORT

Introduction

Archery is a sport done all over the world. There are many kinds of archery. There is Bow Hunting, Target Archery, Field Archery, and Flight Archery. In Bow hunting you shoot game, in Target Archery and Field Archery you shoot at targets, and Flight Archery you go for distance.  The ancient Egyptians were the first to use the bow and arrow extensively. 

Safety

 The safety of Archery is very critical. Any Archer should use these rules… 
1) Don’t shoot unless away from everything. 
2) Don’t shoot straight up. 
3) Don’t aim at anything you don’t intend to hit. 
4) Keep equipment in good condition. 
These are the basic safety rules of Archery. They are simple and easy to follow. Any Archer that follows these rules should be successful.  

Equipment

 The most important piece of equipment is the bow.   There are three kinds of bows, the compound, the recurve, and the straight bows. Second most is the arrow. The three parts of the arrow are the point, shaft, and the nock.  The point shape varies on shape from bullet shaped to blade shapes. Shafts vary from materials wood, aluminum, fiber, and carbon. The nock has the notch for the string, and has slits for the feathers/vanes of your arrow. 

Accessories

 You can buy accessories for your bow such as arm guards, shooting gloves wrist straps, sights, quivers, and stabilizers. An arm guard protects your arm from the release of the string. Shooting gloves protects from string cutting off circulation when pulling back the string. A wrist strap holds your hand to the bow.  A sight increases accuracy.  A quiver holds unused arrows on your back or your waist.  A stabilizer reduces vibration of the string after the shot. 

Shooting

To shoot the bow an Archer places feet comfortably apart, facing the target. A right hander holds the bow with his left hand and the string with his right hand. It is the opposite for a left hander. You pull the string back to your chin, with your elbow up even with the string. The string is pulled back with the middle three fingers and rolled off of the fingers. Draw the string back in one smooth motion. Then stay still until the arrow hits the target. 

Summary

 A bow used to be made with sticks and hide. The arrows used to be made of wood and had flint tips. They were made with barbs on them for war so they could not be pulled back out. They were made with bullet shaped points for hunting so they could be pulled back out and reused.



BIBLIOGRAPHY 
 

"Archery," Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia.

"Archery," The World Book Encyclopedia. 1995. vol. 1. pp.  601-604

"Arrow," Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia.

"Arrowhead," The World Book Encyclopedia. 1995. vol. 1. pp. 743-744

"Flint," The World Book Encyclopedia. 1995. vol. 7. pp. 236

"Flint," Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia.

"Indian, American" The World Book Encyclopedia. 1995. vol. 10. pp. 136-184

 


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