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The National Student Research Center

E-Journal of Student Research: Science

Volume 4, Number 6, March, 1996


The National Student Research Center is dedicated to promoting student research and the use of the scientific method in all subject areas across the curriculum, especially science and math.

 

For more information contact:

John I. Swang, Ph.D.
Founder/Director
National Student Research Center
2024 Livingston Street
Mandeville, Louisiana 70448
U.S.A.
E-Mail: nsrcmms@communique.net
http://youth.net/nsrc/nsrc.html

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. Can Food Be Tasted Without Being Smelled?
  2. Speedy Slopes and Incline Plane Surfaces
  3. Bounce Back and Air Pressure In A Ball
  4. Melting Ice
  5. Weight and Incline Planes
  6. Incline Plane Surface Coverings and Rolling Marble Speeds

TITLE: Can Food Be Tasted Without Being Smelled? STUDENT RESEARCHERS: Colby Omner and Amy Askegren SCHOOL: Mandeville Middle School Mandeville, Louisiana GRADE: 6 TEACHER: John I. Swang, Ph.D. I. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS: We would like to do a scientific research project on the ability of people to taste salty, sweet, sour, and bitter foods without smelling them. Our hypothesis states that test subjects will be able to identify salty, sour sweet and bitter liquids without their sense of smell. II. METHODOLOGY: First, we wrote our statement of purpose and reviewed our literature. Our review of literature was on the five senses and the sense organs, but it was mostly on taste and smell. Second, we wrote our hypothesis, identified our variables, and wrote our methodology. Our manipulated variables were the different types of liquid that were tasted and allowing the test subjects' to smell the liquid and by not allowing them to smell the liquid during the tests. Our controlled variables were the different ages of the test subjects, how much liquid for each taste test was placed on each subjects' tongue, the subjects health, and the concentration of the solution placed on the tongue. Our responding variable was the ability of each subject to taste the liquid placed on their tongue. Next, we made our data collection form and we began our experiment. First, we mixed our solutions. Our first liquid was the sour liquid consisting of 1/2 cup of vinegar, that was diluted with 1/2 cup of water. Our second liquid was the bitter liquid consisting of 1/2 cup of black coffee, diluted with 1/2 cup of water. Our third liquid was the salty liquid, consisting of four teaspoons of salt dissolved in a 1/2 a cup of water. Our fourth liquid was the sweet liquid, consisting of 4 teaspoons of sugar dissolved in a 1/2 a cup of water. Next, we took a blindfold and wrapped it around the subjects' head so they could not see. In the first trial, we held the subjects nose so that they could not use their sense of smell. Then we took an eyedropper full of each liquid and emptied it onto the subject's tongue. We allowed them to swish it around on their tongue. Then we had them name whether it had a sweet, salty, sour, or bitter taste. We repeated this process with every liquid, with a pure tap water rinse after each test liquid was tasted. Then we repeated the whole process, but did not hold the subject's nose which allowed them to smell the liquid after it was placed on their tongue. We wrote down our data on our data collection form. There were two sets of data, one from each student researchers. After combining our data, we conducted our analysis of data, wrote our summary and conclusions, and applied our findings to the world outside the classroom. III. ANALYSIS OF DATA: Our analysis of data showed that, three of four young test subjects could name the salty liquid with their nose, four of four could name the sweet liquid, two of four could name the sour liquid, and four of four could name the bitter liquid with their nose. Without their nose, two of four young test subjects could name the salty liquid, three of four could name the sweet liquid, two of four could name the sour liquid, and two of four could name the bitter liquid without their nose. In the older group, with their nose, four of four test subjects could name the salty liquid, four of four could name the sweet liquid, three of four could name the sour liquid, and two of four could name the bitter liquid. Without their nose, three of four older test subjects could name the salty liquid, two of four could name the sweet liquid, three of four could name the sour liquid, and none of four could name the bitter liquid. With their nose, seven of all eight subjects could name the salty liquid, eight of eight could name the sweet liquid, five of eight could name the sour liquid, and six of eight could name the bitter liquid. Without their nose, five of eight could name the salty liquid, five of eight could name the sweet liquid, five of eight could name the sour liquid, and two of eight could name the bitter liquid. IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: In summary, we found out that subjects in our research project can name liquids better by using their sense of smell than by just tasting it alone. This is especially true for bitter liquids. Therefore we reject our hypothesis which stated that test subjects will be able to identify salty, sour sweet and bitter liquids without their sense of smell. V. APPLICATION: We can apply this data to the real world outside the classroom by holding our nose when we have to eat a food or have to take medicine we do not like so we do not have to taste it as much.
TITLE: Speedy Slopes and Incline Plane Surfaces STUDENT RESEARCHER: Mark Richard SCHOOL: Mandeville Middle School Mandeville, Louisiana GRADE: 6 TEACHER: Mrs. Marino I. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS: I want to do a scientific research project to see what effect of the surface of an inclined plane has on how far an object rolls. My hypothesis states that a matchbox car that rolls down an inclined plane covered with wax paper will roll farther than when rolled down an inclined plane covered with sandpaper or aluminum foil. II. METHODOLOGY: First I stated my purpose, reviewed the literature, and developed my hypothesis. Next, I gathered my materials. Then I made an inclined plane 6 cm high on the floor. I rolled a match box car down the inclined plane with nothing on the inclined plane. I recorded how far it rolled on my data collection sheet. I repeated this 2 more times. I covered the inclined plane with sand paper and rolled the matchbox car down the inclined plane. I recorded how far it rolled on my data collection sheet. I repeated this 2 more times. I then changed the surface to wax paper and repeated the same procedure 3 times. Finally, I put aluminum foil on the surface and tested 3 times recording the distance each rolled on my data collection sheet. Then I analyzed my data, wrote a summary and conclusion, and applied this information to the real world. III. ANALYSIS OF DATA: The data shows that, on trial one with no covering on the incline plane, the car rolled 124 cm. For trial two, it rolled 135 cm. For trial three, it rolled 141 cm. The car rolled an average of 133 cm. For trial one, with the sandpaper, the car rolled 123 cm. For trial two, it rolled 117 cm. For trial three, it rolled 113 cm. The car rolled an average of 117.7 cm. For trial one, with the wax paper, the car rolled 139 cm. For trial two, it rolled 140 cm. For trial three, the car rolled 143 cm. The car rolled an average of 140.7 cm. For trial one, with the aluminum foil, the car rolled 152 cm. For trial two, it rolled 138 cm. For trial three, the car rolled 154 cm. The car rolled an average of 148 cm. IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: The average distance the car rolled when the incline plane was covered with sandpaper was 117.7 cm., for no covering, it was 133.3 cm., for the wax paper covering, it was 140.7 cm., and for aluminum foil, it was 148 cm. Therefore, I reject my hypothesis which stated that a matchbox car that rolls down an inclined plane covered with wax paper, will roll farther than when rolled down an inclined plane covered with sandpaper, aluminum foil, or uncovered. It rolled farthest when the incline plane was covered with aluminum foil. V. APPLICATION: I can apply my findings to the real world by suggesting that if someone were to move a heavy object down an inclined plane, they should place pieces of aluminum foil under the object being moved to make it easier for them to move it.
TITLE: Bounce Back and Air Pressure In A Ball STUDENT RESEARCHER: Jeff Arabie SCHOOL: Mandeville Middle School Mandeville, Louisiana GRADE: 6 TEACHER: Ellen Marino, M.Ed.. I. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS: I want to do a scientific research project on how air pressure affects the height a basketball will bounce. My hypothesis states that the basketball with the most air pressure will bounce the highest. II. METHODOLOGY: First, I stated my purpose, reviewed the literature on air pressure, and developed my hypothesis. Then I gathered a basketball, a meter stick, a hand pump, and a pressure gauge. Next, I went outside and pumped the ball up to 5-6 psi, dropped it from 75 cm in the air, and had my assistant measured how high the ball bounced. I repeated this two more times recording the height on my data collection form. After that I inflated the ball to 8-9 psi and repeated the entire procedure three times. Next, I inflated the ball to 11-12 psi and repeated the procedure three times. Then I analyzed my data, wrote my summary and conclusions, and applied this to the world outside the classroom. III. ANALYSIS OF DATA: When the ball was inflated to 5-6 psi it bounced to a height of 57 cm, 58 cm, and 60 cm, for an average of 58 cm. When the ball was inflated to 8-9 psi it bounced to a height of 62 cm, 63 cm, and 65 cm, for an average 63 cm. When the ball was inflated to 11-12 psi it bounced to a height of 68 cm, 67 cm, and 70 cm, for an average of 68 cm. IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: The basketball when inflated to 5-6 psi, bounced an average of 58 cm, when inflated to 8-9 psi it bounced an average of 63 cm, and when inflated to 11-12 psi it bounced an average of 68 cm. The basketball with the most air pressure bounced the highest. Therefore I accept my hypothesis which stated that the basketball with the most air pressure will bounce the highest. V. APPLICATION: I play a lot of basketball and I know that regulations require that the basketball should bounce to about 90 cm or waist high when dropped from shoulder height. According to my data, I should pump the ball to at least 11-12 psi in order to get it to bounce to that height.
TITLE: Melting Ice STUDENT RESEARCHER: Sean Blais SCHOOL: Mandeville Middle School Mandeville, LA GRADE: 6 TEACHER: E. Marino M.Ed. I. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS I want to do a science research project on what melts the fastest: frozen water and salt, frozen water and sugar, or plain frozen water. My hypothesis state that frozen water and salt will melt faster than frozen water and sugar or plain water. II. METHODOLOGY I first stated my purpose, reviewed the literature, and developed my hypothesis. Then I gathered my materials. Next, I mixed sixty milliliters of sugar and four hundred milliliters of water to make solution A. Then I poured solution A into a red ice cube tray. Next, I mixed sixty milliliters of salt with four hundred milliliters of water to make solution B. I poured solution B into a green ice cube tray. Then I poured four hundred milliliters of water to make solution C. I poured solution C into a blue ice cube tray. I put all the ice cube trays in the freezer. When all the substances were frozen I removed them from the freezer. Next, I removed one ice cube from each ice cube tray and put them in a pan. I watched all the ice cubes until they melted. I wrote down the order in which they melted. I repeated this procedure two more times. Then I analyzed the data, wrote a summary and conclusion, and applied my findings to everyday life. 111. ANALYSIS OF DATA In trial one, frozen water and salt was first to melt, frozen water and sugar was second, and frozen water was third. I got same results in trials two and three. IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The results showed that frozen salt and water melts the fastest, frozen water and sugar melts second fastest, and frozen water melts the slowest. Therefore, I accept my hypothesis which stated that frozen water and salt would melt faster than frozen water and sugar or frozen water. V. APPLICATION I can apply my findings to the real world by using frozen water to keep things cold for a longer period of time.
TITLE: Weight and Incline Planes STUDENT RESEARCHER: Liza Blake SCHOOL: Mandeville Middle School Mandeville, Louisiana GRADE: 6 TEACHER: Ellen Marino I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis I wanted to do a research project to see if weight had an effect on how fast a soda can rolled down an inclined plane. My hypothesis stated that a full can would roll down the incline plane faster than an empty can. II. Methodology First, I stated my purpose, reviewed my literature, and developed my hypothesis. Then I took several books and put them under the two front legs of the table so that the table top formed an inclined plane. Next, I put a piece of tape at the top of the inclined plane to indicate a starting line. I then placed the two cans, one full and one empty, at the starting line and let go of both of them at the exact same time. I did three trials. Finally, I analyzed my data, wrote the summary and conclusions, and applied my data to the world outside the classroom. To test my hypothesis I used the following materials: tape two soda cans; one full, one empty, table, pencil, books, and a data collection form. IV. Analysis of Data In all three trials, the full can arrived at the bottom of the inclined plane before the empty can. V. Summary and Conclusion In all three trials, the full can arrived at the bottom of the inclined plane before the empty can. Therefore, I accept my hypothesis, which stated that a full can would roll down the incline plane faster than an empty can. VI. Application If two things started rolling down a hill at me, I would know to get out of the way of the heavier one first.
TITLE: Rolling, Rolling, Rolling STUDENT RESEARCHER: J.B. Pullias SCHOOL: Mandeville Middle School Mandeville, Louisiana GRADE: 6 TEACHER: Mrs. Marino I. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS I want to do a research project on the affect which different kinds of surfaces have on a marble rolling off of an incline plane. My hypothesis states that a marble rolling off of an incline plane will roll farther on plastic wrap than on aluminum foil, a cotton towel, or bathroom tissue. II. METHODOLOGY First, I stated my purpose, reviewed the literature, and developed my hypothesis. Then I gathered my materials and started my experiment. I set up an incline plane ten centimeters high. Then I placed, one at a time, the following materials on the surface of the incline plane: plastic wrap, bathroom tissue, a cotton towel, and aluminum foil. Then I picked up a marble and placed it at the top of the incline plane. I let it roll down the incline plane and measured how far the marble rolled from the bottom of the plane. I did three trials for each surface and recorded my data on my data collection sheet. Finally, I analyzed the data, wrote a conclusion, and applied my findings to everyday life. I used the following materials to test my hypothesis: a marble, pencil and paper, a ruler, an incline plain, plastic wrap, bathroom tissue, a cotton towel, and aluminum foil. VI. ANALYSIS OF DATA The marble rolling on top of plastic wrap rolled 490.22 cm. in trial one, 363.22 cm. in trail two, and 482.6 in trial three, for an average of 445.33 cm. The marble rolling on top of bathroom tissue rolled 287.02 cm. in trial one, 248.92 cm. in trial two, and 251.46 cm in trial three, for an average of 262.45 cm. The marble rolling on top of a cotton towel rolled 72.39 cm. in trial one, 73.66 cm. in trial two, and 71.12 cm. in trial three, for an average of 71.12 cm. The marble rolling on top of aluminum foil rolled 86.36 cm. in trial one, 106.68 cm. in trial two, and 124.26 cm. in trial three, for an average of 105.84 cm. VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The average distance travelled by the marble rolling on top of plastic wrap was 445.33 cm., on top of bathroom tissue was 262.45 cm., on top of a cotton towel was 71.12 cm., and on top of aluminum foil was 105.84 cm. Therefore I accept my hypothesis which stated that a marble rolling off of an incline plane will roll farther on plastic wrap than on aluminum foil, a cotton towel, or bathroom tissue. VIII. APPLICATION When I want to move something I could place plastic wrap under it to make it move easier. © 1996 John I. Swang, Ph.D.



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