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The National Student Research Center
E-Journal of Student Research: Science
Volume 6, Number 4, February, 1998
The National Student Research Center is dedicated to promoting student research and the use of the scientific method in all subject areas across the curriculum, especially science and math.
For more information contact:
- John I. Swang, Ph.D.
- National Student Research Center
- 2024 Livingston Street
- Mandeville, Louisiana 70448
- E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- What Environments Do Hermit Crabs Likes?
- Which Type of String Will Stretch The Most?
- Flammability of Household Fabrics
- The Effects of Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus on the Early Growth of Sunflowers
- Better Ways to Remember
- The Effect of Vitamins on Plants
- Should You Feed Your Plants Juice Instead Of Water?
- The Effect of Earthworms on the Growth of Radish Plants
- Does Temperature Affect the Flight of Hot-Air Balloons?
- The Temperature of Different Colors
Title: What Environments Do Hermit Crabs Likes? Student Researcher: Devon Catharine School Address: Fox Lane Middle School Bedford, NY 10546 Grade: 6 Teacher: Dr. Sears I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: The topic of my project is Tree Hermit crabs. The crabs will be in their own little pens. I will demonstrate with 3 Hermit crabs what kind of environment they like. The 3 environments to choose are: light or dark, incline or level, and moist or dry. My hypothesis is that the crabs would prefer going towards the incline, dry, and dark area. II. Methodology: The items that I used for this experiment are: 10 gallon glass terrarium, 3 Hermit crabs, e one pound packages of colored gravel, cardboard, and a black background sheet. I bought a large tank and divided it Into three sections to simulate the different environments. I took the gravel and spread it on the bottom of the tank. I bought black gravel for the dark section and yellow gravel for the light part of the pen. I used 2 feet of black background to cover half of the dark and light pen. On the next day, I sectioned the cage to make inclined and level. I took a piece of cardboard, glued gravel on it, put It over a large shell (their molting shell) and leaned it on the glass, forming the incline. The other section, I left it level. On another day, I used the last part of the tank to develop the moist section. III. Analysis of Data: The data show that my hypothesis was correct. The Hermit crabs proved it by going to the dark side, the dry side and the inclined side. Sometimes the crabs would not move at all, demonstrating no choice or preference. I accepted my hypothesis because Tree Hermit crabs usually go to the higher place. Any crab or creature likes to hide so they would like the dark. The Tree crabs are also land crabs, so they don't live in water. They prefer dryness. IV. Summary and Conclusion: I have learned from my research that these invertebrates love darkness, they like dry land, and they like to be elevated off the ground. V. Application: My findings could be used to help save these creatures they are ever endangered. Now we would know how to save them and take care of them.
Title: Which Type of String Will Stretch The Most? Student Researcher: Priya O. Kalyan-Masih School Address: Fox Lane Middle School Bedford, NY 10506 Grade: 8 Teacher: Dr. Sears I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: I wanted to know which type of string will stretch the most? I want to find out which string is the strongest and the least elastic. My hypothesis is that nylon thread will hold the most weight and stretch the least. II. Methodology: In this experiment I will use different kinds of strings such as nylon thread, metallic silver floss, wax linen, silver thread, polyester, cotton embroidery floss, and yarn. I will use nuts as weights. Finally, I will use a ruler, paper clips, and a balance. I will cut three pieces (thirty inches long) of each different type of string. Next, I will get nuts and weight them to make sure that each group of nuts has the same mass. Also, I will weigh paper clip hooks to make sure that they are the same weight. I will then tie ten inches of each 30" string to a cabinet handle in my kitchen. Next, I will tie another two inches to a weight. I will then let the weight hang from the string and time the test for a minute. After a minute, I will see whether or not any of the strings broke or stretched. I will record my results. If the string breaks, then that type of string is "disqualified" from the rest of the experiment. Next, I will attach another weight of the same mass to the first weight by a paper clip. I will continue to add weights, and record the results every minute. After ten minutes, I will see which strings stretched, how many weights they are holding, and I will record the results. After testing for ten minutes, I will continue to test for ten hours and 19 minutes. After ten hours and 19 minutes, I will record my results. If the strings do not break, then the ones that are stretched the most will be disqualified. The one that breaks last, doesn't stretch, or stretches the least will be declared the strongest string in the experiment. In this experiment, I need to control certain things. The controlled variables are equal amounts of string, weights of the same size, kind, and mass, and the same size paper clips. I will tie an equal amount of string to the cabinets and the weights, and for the same amount of time. The independent variable will be the different types of string. III. Analysis of Data: The data I collected indicate a lot of things. The polyester string stretched the most. It stretched a total of two centimeters. The cotton embroidery floss stretched the least. It stretched a total of .9 cm. The silver thread stretched a total of 1.5 cm and the nylon thread stretched a total of 1.7 cm. Both the yarn and the metallic silver floss stretched a total of one centimeter. The strongest string and winner out of all seven strings was the wax linen, because it did not stretch at all. I thought that nylon string would stretch the least and hold the most weights, but I was wrong. The nylon thread was one of the strings that stretched the most. Also, it held the same amount of weights, as all the other strings did. It was the wax linen string that did not stretch at all and the cotton embroidery floss that stretched the least. This really shows how hypothesis can be way off. IV. Summary and Conclusion: I found out many things from this experiment. Most importantly, I found out that after a certain amount of time, the polyester string stretched the most, which may mean the string is weak, and while it was stretching, there was a lot of tension in the string. Secondly, I found out that after a certain amount of time, the cotton embroidery floss stretched the least. Finally, I found out that after a certain amount of time, the wax linen did not stretch at all. V. Application: I can apply my data from my project in two ways. First, whenever I need a string to hold something, I will know to choose wax linen as my string, because it does not stretch and has less of a chance of breaking. Second, whenever I make a necklace that involves a lot of beads, I will use wax linen, for strength.
Title: Flammability of Household Fabrics Student Researcher: Michael Russo School Address: Fox Lane Middle School Bedford, NY 10507 Grade: 7 Teacher: Dr. Carolynn Sears I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: I wanted to find out which household fabric is least flammable. My hypothesis is that cotton will burn fastest and the baby clothing will take the longest time to ignite. II. Methodology: First, I cut seven different fabrics into multiple 4"x4" squares. The fabrics used were fireproof baby clothes, 100% cotton, 50/50 cotton polyester blend, 100% silk, 100% polyester, 100% denim, and 100% rayon. Second, I put one square of each fabric directly onto the shelf of a propane barbecue, preheated to 500 degrees F. Finally, I timed how long it took, in minutes, for each piece to catch on fire. I recorded the time using a stopwatch. I repeated this process five times. Next, I took the 4"x4" squares of each of the seven fabrics and held them, with tongs, directly in the flame. I measured the time, in minutes, for each piece to catch on fire, and recorded it. I repeated this process only three times, since the results for each repetition were almost identical. The controlled variables were the temperature, the barbecue, and the size of the fabric. The experimental variable was the kind of fabric and the responding variable was the time needed to catch on fire. III. Analysis of Data: My charts and graphs show that at 500 degrees F the Fire Proof Baby Clothing took an average of .108 minutes to burn, the Cotton took an average of 16.62 min. to burn, the 50/50 Cotton/Polyester Blend took an average of 4.748 min. to burn, the Silk took an average of 20 min. to burn, the Polyester took and average of .7 min. to burn, the Denim took an average of 4.89 min. to burn, and the Rayon took an average of 1.97 min. to burn. When held in direct contact with the flame the Fire Proof Baby Clothing took an average of .214 min. to catch on fire, the Cotton took an average of .04 min. to catch on fire, the 50/50 Cotton/Polyester blend took an average of .078 min. to catch on fire, the Silk took an average of .064 min. to catch on fire, the Polyester took an average of .083 min. to catch on fire, the Denim took an average of .043 min. to catch on fire, and Rayon took an average of .026 min. to catch on fire. IV. Summary and Conclusion: My hypothesis is completely wrong, because I found out that, in fact, cotton and silk actually take the longest times to burn, at 20 minutes per square, and that the baby clothes melted as soon as they touched the heat. V. Application: My findings indicate that it would be safer for young children, and even adults, to wear cotton and silk, since they take the longest time to ignite. This is especially true for babies. Since their "fire proof' pajamas melt on contact with extreme heat, it would be safer for them to wear cotton. I spoke to the Mt. Kisco fire chief about these "fire proof' baby clothes, and he said that he thinks the government should change the regulation that prevents child pajamas from being made with cotton. He thinks this because hot molten fabric completely destroys the skin. The Flammable Fabrics Act (1953) set standards for the garment industry in regard to baby pajamas. From the results of my study, I think this act needs to be updated.
Title: The Effects of Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus on the Early Growth of Sunflowers Student Researcher: John Levene School Address: Fox Lane Middle School Bedford, NY 10506 Grade: 6 Teacher: Dr. Sears 1. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: I wanted to learn about the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on plant growth. Plants cannot live without these primary nutrients. Plants also require small amounts of other minerals called micronutrients. My experiment looked at the effect of the primary nutrients on sunflowers during their first 2 weeks of growth. II. Methodology: I prepared 10 stock solutions from a plant mineral requirement set originally bought from the Carolina Biological Supply Company. I used these stock solutions to make 3 feeding solutions which were identical to each other except that each lacked one of the primary nutrients (N, P, or K). I also prepared a complete fertilizer from the stock solutions which contained all of the necessary nutrients. In addition, a control solution of deionized water which lacked all nutrients was used. All solutions were made using deionized water which was free of all minerals. I soaked 180 Burpee Sunflower seeds for 30 hours in deionized water. I then planted each seed in 27 cubic cm of Pearlite, a mineral-free medium, in individual cells of a seed tray. To prevent contamination from the overflow of water or nutrients, I placed strips of wood between the seed cells and the bottom tray. After planting the seeds on the first night (Day 1), all plants received 10 ml of deionized water. On Day 2, all plants received 5 ml of their given solution. One solution was missing nitrogen (N-), one was missing phosphorus (P-), another was missing potassium (K-), one contained all three nutrients, and one was just deionized water. In total, there were 5 solutions. This schedule continued, alternating 10 ml of deionized water one night with 5 ml of a given solution the next. Beginning on day 7, plants were grown under constant fluorescent light and plant height was measured daily before watering or feeding. The experimental variables were the absence of one of the three primary nutrients: nitrogen, potassium or phosphorus. The responding variable was the plant height in each condition. III. Analysis of Data: Plant growth was first seen on day 6, but the sprouts were too small to be measured. On day 6, 4 plants had sprouted in the control group, 5 plants had sprouted in the P- group, and 10 plants had sprouted in each of the K-, N-, and complete nutrient groups. Beginning on day 7, plant height was measured each night before feeding or watering. The absence of all nutrients (the control group) produced the least growth of sunflowers. In the experimental groups, the removal of K from the nutrient solutions had the greatest effect on reducing plant height, the removal of P had the second greatest effect, and the removal of N had the least effect on sunflower growth. Plants in the N- group appeared to grow taller than the plants fed with the complete nutrient solution. To try to understand this result, I looked at the number of seeds which had germinated in each group. More plants germinated and grew in the N- group than in the group fed with the complete nutrient solution. Furthermore, when I looked at the average height of germinated seeds, I clearly saw that the complete group had more height than the N- group, but less seeds had germinated. IV. Summary and Conclusion: My results showed that the removal of potassium had the greatest effect on reducing the early growth of sunflowers and that it may be the most important of the 3 primary nutrients for growth at this stage. This result was surprising because nitrogen is considered to be the most important nutrient to look for when choosing a fertilizer. Nitrogen is necessary for above-ground growth, phosphorus is important for seedling development and root growth, and potassium helps plants make starch and protein. However, my experiment was limited to a two-week time period only and results at later stages may be different. V. Application: The results of my experiments provide information only about the early growth of sunflowers. However, the approach that I used to understand which primary nutrients have the greatest effect on growth could be used to design fertilizers to increase the growth of any plant under different conditions.
Title: Better Ways to Remember Student Researcher: Bharat Kumar School Address: Edgemont Jr/Sr. High School White Oak Lane Scarsdale, NY 10583 Grade: 7 Teacher: Ms. Russo I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: The purpose of this experiment is to examine what types of objects can be remembered easier by 7th Graders. Its aims are also to see if one gender remembers some items better than the other and to see whether the data for short term memory will be different than the long-term memory. My first hypothesis is that sentences and clauses written in rhymes can be remembered easier. My second hypothesis is that there may be differences between the two genders in memorizing the same objects. My third hypothesis states that objects seen will be remembered much easier in the short-term as compared to long term. II. Methodology: The dependent and controlled variables in this experiment were gender, and all volunteers are 7th graders. The independent, responding and manipulated variables are the time between when I asked them to remember the items and when they told me what they remembered. To achieve my goal, I have devised three experiments: Experiment A: In this procedure, my aims were to see if one gender remembers a certain type of object better than another in the short term. I asked 15 boys and 15 girls to remember a certain number (97), a series of words (yellow, angry, sofa, shovel), a rhyme (twinkle twinkle little star variation), and I showed them an object (a pencil). After 5 minutes, I asked the volunteers to recite what I had told them separately. Experiment B: In this experiment, I tested 10 boys and 10 girls. It was designed to see if gender and types of objects affect the long term memory. For this, I extended the duration (of how long they have to remember) to 24 hours. I, again, used a number (66), words such as gym, bleachers, glasses, and sweatshirt, a rhyme (a variation of Jack and Jill went up the hill...), and an object seen (a pamphlet on dental basics). Procedure for Experiment C: I modeled this after the experiments listed above. I told the subjects the same items as described above. The only difference was that they had to remember the items for a longer time (72 hours). There were still 10 boys and 10 girls. III. Analysis of Data: Experiment A (5 Minutes): In one part of this experiment, to see if a rhyme would be better to remember, I found that all of the male volunteers (100%) and 80% of the girls had remembered the rhymes correctly. A better item to remember would be a number. The number was remembered by more than 90%, equally in both genders. About 86% of the boys and 100% of the girls remembered the object shown to them correctly. The 4th item tested were the words . Approximately a 73% of boys and 86% of the girls remembered all of the 4 words correctly. The arithmetic mean for the boys was 88% and for the girls was 90%. The median for the boys, and the girls was 89.5%. The range of the boys was from 73%-100%, and the girls: 80%-100%. Experiment B (24 hours): In this experiment, 80% of the boys and 80% of the girls remembered the numbers correctly. 80% of the boys and 90% of the girls remembered the words. 90% of the boys and girls tested, remembered the rhymes. Lastly, 80% of the girls and 90% of boys remembered the object that was shown. The mean of the girls was 85% and the boys was 82.5%. The median of the girls was 80%, and boys was 85%. The range of the girls was 80%-90% and the boys was 70%-90%. The mode of the girls was 80%, and the boys was 90%. Experiment C (48 hours): In this experiment, 80% of males and 90% of females remembered the number. The percent of people who remembered the words were 60% in males and 80% in females. The percent of people who remembered the rhyme were 90% in males and 80% in females. The percent of people who remembered the object were 90% in males and 80% in females. The mean for boys was 80%, and for girls, it was 82.5%. The median in boys was 85%; and in girls, it was 80%. The range of the boys was 60%-90%; and the range of the girls was 80%-90%. The mode in boys was 90% and in girls, 80%. IV. Summary and Conclusion: Experiment A: After examining the data, l have concluded that the best way to remember something for the short-term is to either use numbers or make what you want to remember into a sentence or clause which rhymes and is related to previous experiences. Experiment B: After analyzing my data, it became evident that among a group; any gender, the easiest way to remember something is by using a visual item. Experiment C: To remember an object for more than 24 hours, a 7th grader could choose any of the ways to present the item except in the form of words. All Experiments: In these experiments, l have proved that gender, the type of item (familiar or unfamiliar), the presentation of an item, and the amount of time affects memory. Because of these statements, l accept all of my hypotheses. One shortcoming of my study was the lack of volunteers and time. V. Application This data can be used to help people remember better. It can tell teachers that they should use numbers to help their students remember in the short term, such as reviewing directly before a test. In the long term, it can help students to raise their grades by using a visual item, making a rhyme, or using numbers to study better.
Title: The Effect of Vitamins on Plants Student Researcher: Vijay Karia School Address: Edgemont Jr/Sr. High School White Oak Lane Scarsdale N.Y. 10583 Grade: 7 Teacher: Ms. Russo I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: The purpose of this project is to see if plants would grow faster when you not only feed them water and provide sunlight, but also feed them vitamins. I hypothesize that the plant which were not fed the vitamins were not going to grow as extensively as the plants which were fed the vitamins. II. Methodology: The materials I used were: 1) three Fennel Sweet plants, 2) Tap water, 3) Vitamin C, and 4) Vitamin E. I took three fennel plants that were already partially grown to the same height and fed them different vitamins. I also gave them one fourth of a cup of water each day. I kept them indoors at the same temperature and in the same amount of sunlight each day. I fed one of the plants vitamin C and the other vitamin E; the third plant was my control, which I just fed water and gave it sunlight and kept the plant in the same climate as the others. The controlled variables in this experiment were that the same plants were used, as well as the same amount of water and sunlight. The manipulated variable were the different vitamins used in each plant except the control. The responding variable was the growth of the plants. III. Analysis of Data The results of the experiment very clearly show that the plant fed vitamin C grew the tallest. It grew 20 cm. The plant that was fed vitamin E grew a little taller than the control. It grew 18 cm. The control plant grew the shortest. It grew 17 cm. From this data you can see that the vitamins helped both plants grow taller and faster than the control. IV. Summary and Conclusion: After growing the fennel plants with the different vitamins and growing the control, the results clearly show that the presence of vitamins has a direct effect on the plant growth. It is seen that in addition to water and sunlight, vitamin C and E also are very beneficial in the growth of plants. Since this data only applies to the fennel plant, further experiments are necessary for the general effect of vitamins on all plants. V. Application: This information will be useful to farmers, gardeners, plant industries, and any plant owners who want to grow plants faster and larger. In addition, this discovery could provide a new market for vitamin companies .
Title: Should You Feed Your Plants Juice Instead Of Water? Student Researcher: Matthew Roseman School Address: Edgemont Junior/Senior High School White Oak Lane Scarsdale, New York 10583 Grade: 7th Teacher: Ms. Russo 1. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: Several weeks ago, I set my mind on finding a science experiment which was by far the most crazy idea that I could think of. After pondering for about a week, I made up my mind. I had decided to experiment with juice. Now, we all know that different juices have tons of vitamins which our parents say make us healthy. Well, what about plants? Do vitamins make plants healthy, too? I'll bet that maybe one person out of a thousand would know the answer and I wanted that person to be me. So, I planned an experiment on the effect of different juices on plants. I used a plant called Morning Glories - Heavenly Blue. My hypothesis was that after a couple days my plants would all just die off if watered with juices. II. Methodology: I bought fifteen Morning Glories which were all in their own separate plastic pots and were all bought from the same place. I then split all the plants into three groups containing five Morning Glories each. I would feed four of them with a specific juice and the fifth plant would be fed plain old tap water. The controlled variables were as follows: each of the plants were stationed at the same window in the same room. They each got the same amount of sunlight and I tried to feed them the same amount every day. Next, I decided on three different juices that I found suitable for my experiment. These three juices were Newman's Own Old Fashioned Virgin Lemonade, Tropicana Premium 100% Pure Florida Squeezed Grapefruit Juice and, last but not least, Tropicana Premium 100% Pure Florida Squeezed Orange Juice. These were my manipulated variables. I took one picture, every other day, of each group of plants. I also thought that it would be interesting to compare the heights between each plants as the responding variable. I always measured from the top of the pot to the highest part of the plant. I measured these plants every other day. III. Analysis of Data: After about a week and a half of observing, I found some very interesting information. Lets start with Lemonade. In the group of Morning Glories which were fed with lemonade, the results were probably the most typical. The one plant which was fed with water grew to be a height of 7.4 inches. This specific plant started at the height of 5.2 inches which gave it an advantage in starting height compared with the lemonade fed plants. The plants fed with lemonade started at an average height of 4.7 inches and actually started dying right away. Therefore, their height decreased. But, amazingly enough, it spontaneously started growing again and that is why its height ended at 4.5 inches. The findings of the Grapefruit juice fed plants probably had the worst results. For some reason, the control, which was fed with water died four days in to the experiment. This specific plant started at a low height of 3.1 inches. On the other hand, the plant, which was fed with grapefruit juice, started at a height of 3.8 inches, grew to five inches, and went back down to 4.8 inches. This decrease in height happened because the plants were starting to die. Lastly, I thought that the results for the orange juice fed plants was just incredible. They were by far my best and most exciting results. The control started at a height of 5.1 inches and grew to be 7.2 inches. Here comes the incredible part. The plants given orange juice started at 4.8 inches and actually caught up to the control, ending off at a height of 7.1 INCHES. Despite the fact of its amazing growth spurt, I thought that the most interesting detail about these specific plant's growth was that shortly after feeding the plants with orange juice a yellow coating covered the soil making it look like orange soil. IV. Summary and Conclusion: Overall, the results of my experiment turned out to be nothing like I thought it would be. I went in to this experiment thinking they were all going to die. As I said before, I was wrong and my results have proved that I was wrong. My experiment was the complete opposite of what I expected it would be. My findings in this experiment was that different juices can cause different effects in growing plants. For instance, if you feed your plants Orange Juice they will grow extremely fast and will be very healthy. On the other hand, if you wanted your plants to grow slowly and then eventually die off you would feed your plants Grapefruit juice. Lastly, if you wanted to let your plants grow a little and then die, which I do not recommend, you would feed your plants Lemonade. Of course, after receiving these data I would definitely reject my hypothesis because it was just WRONG. Instead of just dying off, my plants grew and told me useful information which I will be able to use in the future. To be honest, I don't think my experiment had any limitations. I did everything in a precise way. I think that maybe next time I could have taken data every day instead of every other day, but that's basically it. V. Application I think that we as a community could use this information to help make our world a better place to live in. By feeding your plants orange juice on a regular basis, it would benefit many things. Agriculture and farming are just some examples. Best of all, our world would be full of tall, healthy, growing plants.
Title: The Effect of Earthworms on the Growth of Radish Plants Student Researcher: Jessica Feldman School Address: Edgemont JuniorlSenior High School White Oak Lane Scarsdale. New York 10583 Grade: 7 Teacher: Mrs. Russo I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: Do earthworms, which provide fertilization and aeration, really help to increase the overall health of a plant? If so, does the number of worms have an effect on this? I wanted to find out the answers to these two questions and therefore they became the basis for my experiment. My hypothesis states that the radish plant with the greatest number of earthworms in the soil will grow to be the tallest and, overall, be the healthiest plant. II. Methodology: To test my hypothes I used the following materials: BURPEE Cherry Bomb radish seeds, planting soil of the same type. 12 medium size planting pots, a light source, water, and 32 earthworms of similar size. First, I planted the radish seeds in each of the 12 medium size pots, all filled with the same amount of soil. The amount and type of the soil and the size of the pots were 2 of the controlled variables in my experiment. Another of the controlled variables was the amount of sunlight and water each plant received. After the seeds had germinated, I set up 3 samples of 4 pots each. The manipulated variable was the number of earthworms in soil the plant grows in. The first plant in each sample served as a control, with no worms in its soil. In the second, I put 1 earthworm. I placed 3 in the soil of the third plant. Lastly, 5 earthworms were placed in the fourth plant of every sample. The size of these worms also was a controlled variable. Every day. I observed the appearance and height of each of the 12 radish plants. Therefore. the height of each became the responding variable. III. ANALYSIS OF DATA: I found that my data was very hard to analyze, for the individual samples and averaged results were scattered. The results of the controls in each sample were far off. In sample 1, the plant had a height of 6.7 cm and wasn't very healthy. The control in sample 2 ended up being 6.4 cm tall and unhealthy as well. In the third sample, the control reached 9.2 cm and was actually pretty healthy, having many leaves and a very thick stem. The tallest that any plant grew to be was 9.9 cm and was a plant with 1 earthworm in its soil. That plant also turned out to be the overall healthiest plant in terms of appearance in sample 3 and in the others, too. As I compared this information to that of the other 2 plants which had 1 worm, I saw no similarities. In sample 1, the plant with 1 earthworm was actually the shortest at 6.3 cm and the most unhealthy plant. In sample 2, the plant with the same number of worms, 1, was tallest in that replication of the experiment, at 8.6 cm, which still really isn't at all close to the great height of 9.9 cm. Also, that plant was not very healthy for it had on it many yellow leaves. I decided to reject the data from the plant in sample 1 because it was so much different than the other two and would make the average inaccurate. As you can see so far, my data was pretty scattered because the results of the plants with the same number of worms in their soil should have been at least fairly close. The final results of the plants in samples 1, 2, and 3 which had 3 earth worms were closer together. In sample 1, that plant had a height of 7.4 cm, which was quite close to the height of the plant in sample 3, at 7.7 cm. In sample 2, the plant died when it reached a height of 3.8 cm, so I disregarded these results. Despite the fact that 1 plant with 3 worms died, the other 2 appeared to be relatively healthy except that they were very flimsy. The 3 plants that had 5 earthworms in their soil had heights which were totally different from each other. One was 8.7 cm tall, another was 7.7 cm, and the last was 6.6 cm. Everyone of them had tiny discolored leaves and were EXTREMELY flimsy. Two of them eventually 'flopped over' onto the soil! To get more accurate data, I averaged the heights of the plants, with the exceptions of those I disregarded that had the same number of worms. The averaged results weren't as scattered though, because of the fewer heights that were "off" and inaccurate I had already rejected. The average height of the controls turned out to be 7.4 cm. The average height of the plants which had 1 earthworm in their soil was 9.3 cm. The average height of the plants with 3 earthworms ended up being 7.6 cm. Lastly, the averaged heights of the plants that had 5 earthworms was 7.7 cm. I see a pattern in these results, which goes up, then down, and up again, which doesn't seem logical. I noticed that, as the number of earthworms put into the soil of a plants increased, so did the flimsiness of the plant. No plant ever produced a radish. Another observation I made about the appearance of the 12 plants was that the greater number of earthworms in the pot was associated with more worm droppings which was very logical and made much sense. In general though. my data was very hard to analyze. IV. Summary and Conclusion: My experiment showed that 1 is the ideal number of worms for the type of environment I used, which was a plant in a medium size pot. 3 and 5 worms also help to increase the height of a radish plant, but not nearly as much. I found that a plant is overall healthier with a small amount of earthworms in a medium size planting pot. As I said, the flimsiness of the plants increased with a greater number of worms. I conclude this is because the earthworms, especially if there were 5, were in such a confined area that they destroyed the root systems, causing the radish plant to become flimsy as well as unhealthy because of lack of nutrition (the roots are the part of a plant that take in water and nutrients). There actually were not many other "faults" or shortcomings in my experiment. I believe my results were fairly accurate. Even so, I reject my hypothesis because the plant with the greatest number of earthworms did not grow to be the tallest or the overall healthiest. The radish plant with 1 earthworms in its soil did. V. Application: The results of my experiment can be applied to gardening, farming, and the depletion of nutrients in soil. Most of the time, there are not enough nutrients or natural fertilizers in soil. Earthworms help to replenish these lost nutrients and provide a fertilizer (organic of course} and aeration, which all help to increase the health of a plant. Just be sure to add earthworms to the soil your plants are growing in. The amount you put in should be limited because too many may destroy the root systems and kill the plants or at least decrease the overall health by a great deal.
Title: Does Temperature Affect the Flight of Hot-Air Balloons? Student Researcher: Eve Glazer School Address: Edgemont Jr./Sr. High School White Oak Lane Scarsdale, New York 10583 Grade: 7 Teacher: Ms. Russo I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: The purpose of this hot air balloon experiment is to find out the best temperature to fly a hot air balloon. To do this, I am testing how long model hot air balloons stay in the air at different temperatures. The temperatures tested will be 65 degrees, 70 degrees, and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. I expected that the balloons would fly best at 65 degrees. The reason for this is that balloons rise because of hot air filling the balloon. The air may not be considered as hot if there is not as big a difference in the outside air and the air being used to heat the balloon. My hypothesis is that the bigger the contrast in outside and inside air, the longer the balloon will stay in the air. II. Methodology The materials I used to conduct my research included: garbage bags for balloons, hair dryer, and stop watch. My controlled variables included sunlight, wind, balloon size and shape, and amount of heat used to heat balloon. My manipulated valuables was temperature. My responding variable was time in air. My sample size was six trials for each of three temperatures. Procedure: a) Take three large garbage bags, equal in size, and tie off the open end so that there is only a small hole. b) Fill the bag with air until it opens up completely. c) Put a hair dryer into the hole on the bottom. d) Turn on the hair dryer and heat the balloon. e) When the balloon is filled with heated air it will rise into the atmosphere. III. Analysis of Data: The average number of seconds the hot air balloon stayed in the air when the outside air temperature was 65 degree temperature is 4.00 seconds. The maximum time is 5.54 and the minimum time is 3.20. The range is 2.34. 4.75 seconds is the average time in the air for hot air balloons in 70 degree weather. The range is 3.56, making the maximum time in the air 6.41 seconds and the minimum time 2.85 seconds. The average time in the air with an outside temperature of 75 degrees is 4.60 seconds. 7.36 seconds is the maximum time and 2.42 seconds is the minimum time. The range is 4.94. IV. Summary and Conclusion: My data shows that the outside air temperature does not matter in flying hot air balloons. This data means that my hypothesis is incorrect. The average time in the air for the hot air balloon with an outside air temperature of 65 degrees is the least, and I predicted it would be the highest. My results may be the way they are because there was not enough difference in the temperatures. In conclusion, my results were inconclusive because of the slight differences in temperature. V. Application: Learning the best temperature to fly hot air balloons is important to recreational life, so the most enjoyable hot air balloon rides may be given. It also proves that hot-air rises and shows the relationship between the temperature of the outside air and the temperature of the air inside the balloon.
Title: The Temperature of Different Colors Student Researcher: Ken Hironaka School Address: Edgemont Junior/Senior High School White Oak Lane Scarsdale, NY Grade: 7th grade Teacher: Mrs. Russo I. Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis: I wanted to find out which colors absorb heat better. My first hypothesis stated that the color that absorbs heat most will be black. My second hypothesis stated that some of the colors' temperatures will be lower than the air temperature. II. Methodology First, I chose 5 colored plastic bags: white, green, blue, black, and silver. Next, I used 5 boxes and 5 clear coverings to make containers for each color. I cut out the top and the front and attached the clear covering to each box. I also chose a sunny day for the experiment. I placed the colored bag and a thermometer in each of the containers. I placed the thermometers inside the bags to protect it from direct sunlight and covered it with cardboard. Finally, I placed the containers and the thermometer for the air temperature in direct sunlight, and recorded the temperature inside each bag at 10 minutes intervals. I tried this 2 times then averaged my findings. The controlled variables are the materials of the bags, amount of time in the sunlight, the temperature of the thermometers and the bags at the beginning, and the containers. The manipulated variables are the colors of the bags. The responding variable is the temperature inside the different color bags. III. Analvsis of Data White's lowest average temperature was 24.0 degrees C which was after 60 minutes and the highest was 32.0 degrees C which was after 20 and 30 minutes. Green's lowest temperature was 32.0 degrees C after 10 minutes and the highest was 42.0 degrees C after 30 minutes. Blue's lowest temperature was 28.5 degrees C and the highest was 33.0 degrees C after 30 minutes. Black's lowest temperature was 30.5 degrees C and the highest was 40.5 degrees C after 30 minutes. Silver's lowest temperature was 28.5 degrees C and the highest was 40.0 degrees C after 10 minutes. The air temperature's lowest temperature was 28.5 degrees C and the highest was 34.0 degrees C after 30 minutes. The results were silver 28.5 degrees C, blue 29.5 degrees C, green 33.0 degrees C, white 24.0 degrees C, black 36.5 degrees C. The air temperature was 31.8 degrees C and the highest temperature was in the black covered box. IV. Summary and Conclusion The data showed that green absorbed heat the best. Most of the colors caused the temperature to drop below the air temperature. Therefore, I accept both hypotheses. I also found out that dark colors absorb heat better than light colors. I also thought it will be a good idea if I report the same experiment, but with different shades of the same colors. For example, light blue and dark blue. V. Application As I said above, dark colors absorbed heat better than light colors. I also learned that this is because light colors really reflect sunlight. From this result, you could wear light colored clothes in summer and wear dark colored clothes in winter and spend the seasons more comfortably. When you chose cars, the color of the car is also very important. Most cars manufactured during the last 5 years are controlled by microprocessors. The microprocessors are extremely sensitive to high temperature and may malfunction when temperatures are very high. Even the temperature in a white cars can climb up to 100 degrees C under direct sunlight! What would happen if the color of the car was; for an example, black? It could ruin the microprocessor. You see, colors are just not for design and looks, but also very important for reasons including comfort and proper operation of automobiles. © 1998 John I. Swang, Ph.D.