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Science Project  

TheEffect of Different Media on the Growth of Pineapple

Researched by Mara L.


The purpose of this experiment was to determine if a pineapple (Ananus comosus) could be regenerated from its crown more effectively in rich soil, sand, or water. 

I became interested in this idea because I’ve always liked to do experiments that involve plants and that have something to do with real life. When my mom explained to me that pineapple could be grown from their crowns I knew I wanted to explore this further.

The information gained from this experiment may help pineapple growers produce their crops more efficiently and help use the least amount of materials that are needed such as water, sand, and soil.


My hypothesis is that the pineapple (ananus comosus) will grow much faster and be healthier in rich soil than if you grow the pineapple in water or sand. 

I base my hypothesis on research that I gained about the pineapple (ananus comosus) on the Internet. 
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The constants in this study were: 
The same size of pot and the same amount of soil
The amount of light plants were exposed to
The temperatures where plants were grown 
The same amount of pineapple crowns in each group
The same depth the pineapples are planted in and
The same environment plants where grown in

The manipulated variable was the type of growing medium in each group. 

The responding variable was the length of the roots of the pineapple.

To measure the responding variable I would use a millimeter ruler to measure the length of the roots every week.
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16 4" plastic pots
16 pineapple crowns (leafy part)
1034 grams potting soil plus ". 08-.12- .08"
  (.08% Nitrogen, .12% Phosphate, 
  .08% Solube Potash)
1040 grams sand
129 grams fertilizer "18-6-12" 
(18% Nitrogen, 6% Phosphate, 
  12% Solube Potash)
 1  250ml measuring cup
 20ml planting food "10-6-10"
(10% Nitrogen, 6% Phosphate, 
  10% Solube Potash) 
 15cm  ruler
 Hard water
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1. Gather the materials needed such as pineapple crowns, soil, water, fertilizer, camera, 16 pots, and sand. 

2. Take four pots and place 500 ml of potting soil in them. Label them "Soil 
1", "Soil 2", etc.

3. Do this step with 4 more pots using 500 ml water instead of soil.  Label.

4. Repeat this process with sand and with potting soil, but both of these groups also receive 7 grams of fertilizer per pot. Label.

5.  Take pictures while you are doing the experiment groups and procedures.

6.  Then put 1 crown into each pot 6 cm deep in the soil.

7.  Let the crowns in the pots full of water sink to the bottom of their pots.

8.  Water plant groups every 3 days.

9.  Take observations every week using millimeters to measure the length of the roots.

10. Write observations in project log recording the date and what you did for that day. 
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The original purpose of this experiment was to determine if the pineapple (Ananus comosus) germinated more effectively in rich soil rather than sand or water.

The results of this experiment were that the pineapple grew more effectively in water than in potting soil, or in sand or soil containing fertilizer. 

See the graph below.

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My hypothesis was that the pineapples would grow much faster and healthier in rich soil than if you grow them in water or sand.

The results indicate that this hypothesis should be rejected. The pineapple roots grew much faster in water than in rich soil or sand. 

Because of the results of this experiment, I wonder if this experiment was repeated would the group with water grow faster than all the other groups as it did this time.  A second question is whether as the plants mature would those grown in soil or with fertilizer surpass the water group.

The usefulness of my findings would help pineapple producers start their crops much faster in water and that would help them produce more pineapples.

If I were to conduct this project again I would try to place the pineapples in a green house to keep the soil moist.  I would also try to grow them at a higher temperature, like 80° or 90° F., because that would be more natural. I would also change my procedures in which I wouldn’t have to take the pineapples out of the soil or sand until the experiment was all finished.
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Plant experiments are done for two main reasons. Plants are fundamental to survival and people are curious about living organisms.  That is why scientists are so interested in learning more about plants through experimentation. 


The pineapple is a fruit classified as the Ananus Comosus. It comes from the Bromelicelaid family, Bromelceae. The pineapple has over 2000 species and 46 genera. One specie is found in South Africa. The pineapple gets its name from a large pinecone. It resembles the fruits guava, agave, and yuccas. The pineapple grows to be one meter (three feet) tall. The roots grow long underground and short above the ground of the soil. It takes three to four years to grow a pineapple. During the fourteen to sixteen months of the growth of the pineapple, the pineapple inflorenscences two violets that are two centimeters long on each rind. A domesticated pineappple can grow from its slips, suckers, and crown. The most grown pineapple is the Smooth Cayenne. The pineapple is also filled with vitamin C. 

Discovery and Origination of the Pineapple

 The pineapple has been said to have been discovered by many people. It also has been originated from many places around the world. Scientist believes the pineapple originated from Brazil. Later, the pineapple was found in the West Indies and Central and South America. The Portuguese are mainly responsible for the pineapple's origination. Christopher Columbus was the first English explorer to taste the pineapple in 1493. Sir Walter Raleigh and Gonzalo Fernandez de Oveida y Valdez also discovered the pineapple after Columbus did. The pineapple is domesticated in the high plateaus in Central America. It is domesticated there after the arrival of the Europeans. 

Plantation and Growth of Pineapples

 The pineapple plant is planted in rows. The soil is first fumigated for insects. The pineapple plant, which is the pineapple crown, is inserted through paper in the fumigated soil. Fifteen thousand through twenty thousand pineapple plants are planted per acre. Seven million six hundred metric tons of pineapple are planted annually. Twenty percent of the crops come from Thailand and sixty percent of canned pineapples come from Hawaii. 

Pest and Disease 

 Eventually, all plant have some type of disease. A pineapple plant has two types of disease. One disease is called heart rot caused by fungi. The cure for this disease is putting fungicide in the heart (center) of the crown. The pineapple plant may get mealy bugs or scales. The cure for this pest are putting insecticide or washing the leaves of the crown.


The pineapple plant is used in very warm climates. In the United States, a pineapple plant is easy to grow. During the winter, the pineapple plant is kept on the window seal during the day. During the evening it is removed from the window seal to prevent frost damage. In the summer, the pineapple plant is kept outside in the garden. It is placed in a very shady place in the garden.

Pineapple Producers

 Pineapple producers are found everywhere around the world. Thailand produces the most pineapples. Hawaii produces the most canned pineapple. The other countries that 
Produce pineapples and sells them as exports are Brazil, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and South Africa. There is one coast that produces pineapples. That is the Ivory Coast. 

Commercial Pineapples 

 The first commercial growing system for the pineapple was done in 1850 in Azores, England. It is still done to this day. The second commercial system was during the 1860's. It started in the Florida Keys. In 1910, the production and shipping of pineapples in crates increased. There is no known date when the production of pineapple began to decline. The production of the pineapples began to decline after Cuba said the pineapple brought disease to the country. In 1970, Hawaii lowered the cost for the pineapple and commercial products rose because fruit was now canned. 


 The pineapple is well known fruit throughout the world. There are over ten major pineapple producers around the world. Plantation is usually done outdoors in tropical areas of the world. Many explorers are said to have found the pineapple but not many people know where pineapple was really first found. The pineapple has over two thousand species. Many pineapple producers still use pineapple commercially today as they did during the 1800's. Pineapples do not always get pest or diseases but it does occur.


Art: Courtesy of the Dole Company Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. "Pineapple," The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 1988. Vol.9. Pp.452-453

Bartholomew, D." How to Grow a Pineapple in Your Home." [Online] Available http://agrss.sherman November of 1995

Bruce Coleman Inc., "Pineapple," The World Book Encyclopedia. 1991. Vol.19. Pp.476-477 

Collins, Julius L. " The Pineapple: Botany" Academic American Encyclopedia.1998. Vol.15. Pp.306-307

Division of Encyclopedia, Inc. "Pineapple." Compton's Encyclopedia. 1988. Vol.19.pp.329

Hershey, David R. Plant Biology Science Projects, 1995

Kindersley, Dorling. "Pineapple." Microsoft Bookshelf 98 1998 ed. CD-ROM. Microsoft Inc. 1997

Levins, Hoag."All About the Pineapple." [Online] Available /~Shenco/pineapp2.html,1995-1996 

Tanabe, Michael J. "Pinepple" World Book.1991.Vol.5. Pp.476-477

Wolf H.S. "Pineapple." Colliers Encyclopedia. 1995. Vol. 19. Pp55

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